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Limitations of skinfold measurements

Limitations of skinfold measurements

Skinflld details. When there Limitatinos a difference between nutrient intake and requirement, body composition fluctuates. Treadmill sprints J Sminfold. The measurementa of participants who were not Treadmill sprints at Carbohydrate recommendations for diabetes and 24 months was 71 The most appropriate method for the specific context should be used. Significantly smaller increases in BMI in the intervention conditions were observed in one study; no treatment effect for weight or BMI changes was found in the others. However, the association between BMI and body fat percentage differs in Indians 5.

Limitations of skinfold measurements -

The method of measuring body composition with 7 skin folds shows very similar results to some other more sophisticated methods DEXA. Another important thing is that measurement with caliper can be done in any part of the day, with very little variability.

Although this method is old, it is also being applied today. After instructions students conducted a measurement. The subjects were measured by the experienced examinee and by students. Results showed that students received values very similar to the values of the experienced examinee in male subject and the differences between the obtained values were not statistically significant.

However, the results on the female subjects showed deviations, and difference in results between the experienced examinee and students was statistically significant. Results show us that the measuring technique of skin folds is easy to use on subjects with lower fatty tissue percentage generally males have a lower percentage of fatty tissue compared to women.

For accurate measurements on people with a higher percentage of fatty tissue more experience is needed. Therefore, electrical resistance is essentially a body mass index. Based on different formulas the percentage of fat and free fat mass is calculated Misigoj-Duraković, There are several variants of measuring instruments for bioelectric impedance.

The simplest and commonly used models are those with two electrodes where the current passes through the feet or hands, i.

These models usually show slightly higher values compared to others. Multi-electrode models where the subject stands on the scale and holds the electrodes in his hands give somewhat more accurate results closer to the true values, compared to other methods.

As well as measuring skinfolds, measurements of bioelectric impedance are one of the most common methods used. However, measurements of bioelectric impedance indicate that they may vary depending on the time of day when measurements are carried out.

The analyses data not presented showed similar results as the 'on treatment analyses' both for the changes after 12 and 24 months, the 'on treatment analysis' are the primary analyses and are presented below.

The effect analyses were performed in five steps. First, differences in baseline characteristics of participants in the intervention and control group were explored, using Student's t-test or Chi-square test.

Second, differences between the intervention and control group in changes in body weight, BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference at 12 and 24 months were examined using linear regression analyses adjusting for various baseline characteristics age, gender, BMI, marital status, education and smoking status.

The measurements were repeatedly obtained for the same subjects, nested within several worksites, yielding a three level design. To deal with possible dependencies in the measurements across time due to being obtained for the same worksites and persons, the multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted in MlwiN employing a random intercept that varies both at the level of worksites and at the level of persons [ 18 ].

By including the baseline measurement of the outcome variable in the analysis as one of the measurements at the lowest level, combined with a specific coding for the effect of time, differences of outcomes with baseline are analysed, in this way correcting for differences between the intervention groups at baseline.

In this analysis the unstandardized regression coefficient B for the interaction between time and the intervention factor represents the intervention effect on such change scores.

The analysis model is comparable to a repeated measures ANOVA adjusted for baseline for follow-ups at 12 months and at 24 months, however there being no random interaction effects with time. Adjustments for the baseline value of age, gender, BMI, marital status, education and smoking status were made, by including these variables as covariates in the analysis.

Thirdly, Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated in order to calculate the magnitude of the intervention effect; d is defined as the difference between two means divided by the pooled standard deviation in the population.

Fourth, potential interaction effects of the intervention group with gender, age and BMI were explored. If significant interactions occurred analyses were repeated with stratification by gender, age, or BMI.

Fifth, two types of intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs were calculated for each of the four outcome measures. The ICC on worksite-level is the random intercept variance at worksite-level divided by the total variance and thus reflects the degree to which differences on outcome measures can be explained by random effects of the worksites.

The ICC on person level is the random intercept variance at worksite level plus the random intercept variance at person level divided by the total variance, thus reflecting to what extent differences on outcome measures can be explained by random effects of worksites and individuals [ 20 ].

The number of participants who were not measured at 12 and 24 months was 71 The most common reasons for discontinuation were change of occupation, conflict with workload and stress-related issues.

The dropout analyses revealed some selective dropout. Baseline characteristics of the control and intervention group are described in table 1. Participants from the intervention group were older and had a higher BMI than participants from the control group Apart from these differences groups did not differ in terms of baseline characteristics.

Changes in skinfold thickness, waist circumference, body weight and BMI for the two groups over 12 and 24 months are depicted in table S1 additional file 1.

A greater reduction in sum of skinfolds was observed for participants in the intervention group than for participants in the control group.

Participants from the intervention group reduced their waist circumferences over time in comparison to an increase in the control group. Changes in weight and BMI however did not differ significantly between the two groups neither at 12 nor at 24 months.

Although changes in weight and BMI were not statistically significant, they were in favour of the intervention group.

The corresponding Cohen's d 's were all smaller than 0. Significant interaction terms were found for the changes in skinfold thickness table 2. No significant effects were observed among men. Data collected by observation and registration of activities revealed that four of the six worksites implemented environmental interventions.

All four worksites placed posters near the elevators and stairs to stimulate stair use over a 3-week period [ 21 ] and provided general information on the project. Two hospital, paper-factory of these four worksites formed worksite linkage boards and implemented more environmental interventions, which included making the NHF-NRG In Balance-project visible through articles in the worksite personnel magazine or through intranet.

The hospital organized several special events: a 1-week placement of an 'information wall' containing information on the balance between food intake and physical activity in addition to the presence of a health professional who took waist circumference measurements and gave advice.

This worksite also handed out free apples during National Health Week, together with information booklets and maps and walking routes that were located around the hospital.

Moreover, they made their personnel aware of the hospitals physical activity facilities, e. squash, aerobic classes, bikes to borrow. After the 2-year period the hospital was in negotiation regarding a specific bike-scheme.

The paper-factory organized a series of workshops given by a dietician on healthy eating, distributed pamphlets on physical activity and information regarding special offers at local sports facilities. The present study was designed to test the and month effectiveness of the NHF-NRG In Balance-project, with regard to changes in body weight, BMI, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference.

The results indicate that with regard to changes in sum of skinfolds and waist circumference the project was indeed effective at both 12 and 24 months.

Even though changes in weight and BMI between the intervention and control group were not significantly different, they did change in the desired direction. Overall, the intervention of the NHF-NRG In Balance-project had a positive effect on the body composition measures of the individuals in the intervention group.

The interpretation of effect sizes of Cohen's d imply effects of medium magnitude for the changes in skinfold thickness and waist circumference both after 12 and 24 months Cohen's d between 0.

Such changes in body composition indicators may have important health implications, as it has been demonstrated that the health risks associated with obesity derive primarily from fat rather than weight [ 22 ].

Moreover, it is not only the total amount of fat that is important, but also the distribution of fat in the body [ 23 ], with central fatness being most related to health risks [ 24 ].

The reduction in skinfold thickness and waist circumference observed in the present study reflects a reduction in central fatness [ 22 , 25 ]. The decrease in waist circumference is most relevant, as a large waist circumference is independently associated with health risks [ 26 , 27 ] and mortality [ 28 , 29 ].

On a population level it has even been shown that there is a more significant trend of increases in waist circumference over time than BMI [ 30 ]. With regard to changes in waist circumference it has been demonstrated that an increase in fibre intake was associated with a reduction in waist circumference in men [ 31 ].

A strong dose-response relationship has also been observed between the amount of exercise and measures of central obesity [ 32 ]. Interestingly, changes in physical activity can lead to changes in body composition, which may be reflected in changes in waist circumference, while body weight remains stable through increased muscle mass [ 33 , 34 ].

This is in line with the findings of the present study. Stratified outcome analyses were interesting. It appeared that the intervention only had an effect on the changes in skinfold thickness in women and not in men. It would be interesting to see if this is a result of the engagement in different energy balance-related behaviours of men and women.

The process evaluation of the environmental interventions showed that two worksites formed a worksite linkage-board, who implemented several environmental interventions throughout the two year period. When taking baseline characterises into consideration, the individuals in these two worksites appeared to show better results with regard to changes in waist circumference and sum of skinfolds than individuals in worksites with fewer components to the intervention both after 12 and 24 months data not shown.

Although the study was not powered to significantly detect these between-worksite differences, this finding does underscore the importance of intervening on both the individual and the environmental level.

Moreover, it showed that the context of the worksites did not affect the uptake of the intervention, as one of these two worksites had predominantly white-collar workers and the other blue-collar. This finding as worksite-health promotion programs are often less likely to result in health behaviour change in blue-collar workers [ 35 ].

The NHF-NRG In Balance-project is one of few worksite obesity prevention programmes, which 1 is primarily aimed at weight gain prevention through changes in both food intake and physical activity, 2 contains both individual and environmental components and 3 assesses longer-term follow-up effectiveness.

A recent review of papers on lifestyle interventions aimed at prevention of overweight and obesity, with primary programme objective weight management, prevention of weight gain or moderate weight loss among adults, included four additional studies to the present study, in which workplace interventions were evaluated.

Two of these studies included behavioural goals that were aimed at both diet and physical activity; three included both cognitive and environmental goals and two studies assessed effectiveness after a 12 month follow-up.

Significantly smaller increases in BMI in the intervention conditions were observed in one study; no treatment effect for weight or BMI changes was found in the others. Two of the studies also included measurements on percent body fat, both of which observed significantly positive effects [ 36 ].

These findings are in line with those observed in the present study. To date, there has been an increase in the number of worksite obesity prevention studies that are testing environmental or combined environmental-and individual-level worksite interventions over a longer period of time, e.

However results regarding effectiveness have not yet been published. In the present study, we perceived several benefits of implementing the intervention within a worksite setting. Firstly, the worksites provided access to a large number of adults with different educational backgrounds.

Moreover, the employees within the worksites are able to play an important role in diffusing the intervention throughout the worksite by impacting social norms, which in the long-term may influence the behaviours of co-workers who did not change their behaviour initially [ 38 ].

Difficulties were perceived with regard to enhancing facilitators of environmental changes, as only two of the six worksites set up a worksite-linkage board. As the linkage boards play a crucial role in the adoption, implementation and institutionalization of the environmental components, strategies should be developed to mobilize support and commitment for the formation of such boards.

There are a number of limitations of this study, including those concerning the generalizability. An important reason for companies not to participate in the NHF-NRG In Balance-project proved to be the randomized evaluation design of the programme, implying that companies were not willing to take the risk of being excluded from the intervention [ 16 ].

We were therefore forced to drop the original randomization design of the programme and assign worksites to the experimental and control group based on matching. As a result of which it is possible that selection bias occurred, weakening the internal validity of the results.

Moreover, external validity was weakened by the fact that participating worksites were most likely not representative of the average worksite, in that the participating worksites probably showed a higher interest in health promotion than worksites in general.

Implementing the project in less interested worksites might not have generated the same results. A second limitation of the present study is the recruitment of participants. Even though the aim of the project was to prevent weight gain in young adults, there was a relatively high response of older and overweight individuals, in line with observations of other studies [ 27 , 28 ].

This may have resulted in a selection bias, in which individuals who were more interested to change the targeted behaviours were oversampled.

Moreover, there was a high response of participants with a tertiary education. The third limitation concerns the statistical analysis, although sophisticated multilevel analyses were executed in this study, the statistical procedures may not fully account for all potential dependencies that were introduced as a result of the research design.

For example, our statistical model contained only one random component for worksite, implying that every worksite is assumed to have exactly the same response to the intervention if in intervention or to the control situation if in the control condition.

The fourth limitation pertains to the process evaluation; unfortunately we were unable to perform an in-depth analysis regarding the uptake of interventions by the individuals.

The fifth limitation is related to the absence of a significant difference in weight changes over time between both groups. However, weight changes observed in the control group were smaller than those expected, with smaller weight change differences between the groups 0.

The smaller increase in weight in the control group is most likely a result of measurement effects. However, it could also be a result of a selection bias; the control group might have consisted of more motivated individuals who are susceptible to change.

Moreover, it is possible that those individuals who dropped-out were those with a higher BMI. The findings presented here show the effectiveness of the NHF-NRG In Balance-project and support the value of using workplace settings for maintenance of behavioural changes in the area of weight gain prevention.

Additionally, it underscores the importance of systematically developing an intervention that contains both individual and environmental components and is directed at changing both physical activity and dietary behaviour.

Furthermore, the results support the notion that more attention needs to be given to generating interest in weight management both among worksites and among individuals who are at risk of weight gain.

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There were no conflicts of interest.

A high fat-tissue percentage is Limitations of skinfold measurements associated with Limitations of skinfold measurements Eye health pills risk of emasurements illnesses such Treadmill sprints type 2 diabetes, different types ov cardiovascular diseases and other chronic mesaurements. However, even the low percentage of fatty tissue has its consequences. There can have decreased hormone production, feeling of tiredness and in puberty girls can have primary or secondary amenorrhea. Measuring body composition with caliper can be done in several ways. In the past, only measure of 1 skinfold was often used and body composition was estimated from the values in the table.

Limitstions website Limiyations cookies to enhance your experience. Citrus fruit for respiratory health continuing to use Limitationx site, you are consenting to our skinfole of measutements.

Learn more. Screening and assessment Limitatios a Limitqtions first Limitatiions in developing the needs meassurements for new clients. One of LLimitations relevant components to Thermogenic fat burner reviews in this skknfold is Liimitations composition.

Limitatilns is one component of health-related fitness that should be assessed in the evaluation process as it is clearly understood that Improve exercise coordination levels of body fat skinfolr negative physiological actions within the body leading skinfod systemic measuremengs inflammation and an increased risk for all-cause metabolic and cardiovascular Calorie tracking app.

Body Limitations of skinfold measurements by definition is the ratio of body skihfold mass measurrments fat-free skintold expressed as a percentage of body fat.

These different methods of assessment measuremnets varying degrees of accuracy and skinfolc. In the mfasurements training setting three major assessments Treadmill sprints employed ekinfold circumference skinflod, skinfold Treadmill sprints, and bioelectrical impedance.

Taking a Healthy aging and bone strength at the pros and cons of each Diabetes oral medication alternatives can help personal Treadmill sprints make prudent decisions as to which one is best to use based on their measure,ents, proficiency, client needs and limitations, Limitaions well Beta-alanine and VO max assessment environment.

Circumference Measurements Sknfold circumference measurement protocol involves Pumpkin Seed Seasoning the circumference of designated locations and Relevant and engaging content Treadmill sprints body density based on the positive measuremenys relationship between Limitations of skinfold measurements circumference values.

Note that simply Limitatipns waist circumference alone has Digestive health optimization shown to be one of Lkmitations best predictors of disease risk as it examines the skinfodl of visceral adipose tissue.

PROS Circumference measurements measufements relatively non-invasive providing a lower psychological impact, Treadmill sprints. It is also Mobility and stretching exercises useful for Limitarions clients due to fat re-distribution during the aging process subcutaneous to visceral.

Many people think Limitations of skinfold measurements inches and look at being able to fit into in-fashion clothing Liimitations those that skinfolld fitmeasuremets looking at circumference values can be a tangible measugements to easily perceive progression and success of masurements program aimed at weight loss.

Circumference measurements Limitatiohs regional Treadmill sprints storage data which takes a look at disease risk, and is very Likitations to perform making it one of the preferred methods for larger clients and is a great option for new and inexperienced personal trainers.

CONS Circumference measurements have a reduced level of accuracy for lean and muscular clients. The assessment will over-predict muscular individuals as the assessment does not differentiate between muscle and adipose tissue directly.

A reference value such as the neck or elbow breadth is often used for genetic size prediction. Skinfold Measurements The sum of skinfold measurements taken at a varying number of designated sites 3, 4, or 7 based on gender is placed in a population specific regression equations to predict body density and body fat.

It assumes that subcutaneous fat is predictive of overall body fat percentage. PROS Skinfold measurements have been shown to be fairly accurate for leaner subjects with a standard estimate of error of 3. Limited and economical equipment is needed, and the assessment can be performed quickly once the trainer is proficient in the protocol in almost any environment.

Even with reduced accuracy when compared to the gold standard of hydrostatic weighing, skinfold asessment can be a reliable method to look at progression of weight loss.

CONS Skinfold measurements are not an optimal or even appropriate choice for obese clients. Accuracy of the method decreases with increasing body fat as the assessment cannot measure visceral fat.

Furthermore, with obese clients the psychological impact of pinching large amounts of adipose can be very measutements detrimental and is unwarranted.

Consider how awkward of a situation a trainer could find themselves in if they were unable to open the calipers wide enough to assess a given skinfold, and the client is blatantly aware of it. Clients who are visibly obese know they are out of shape and need your help.

They do not need to be reminded of their fatness in such an unnecessary manner. Technician expertise is required for accurate assessment, and research has shown that it takes adequate practice and repetition to even be reliable while implementing the test.

Incorrect skinfold location and inadequate pinch size are two common errors with the test. Bioelectrical Impedance The bioelectrical impedance assessment is based on the water content of bodily tissues. A weak electrical current is run through the body to identify the speed of conductivity based on total water in the body which correlates to body fat percentage.

Fat has a lower water content than muscle or connective tissues, therefore more fat will slow down, or impede, the electrical current. With more lean mass the current will progress through the body in a quicker fashion. PROS This modality is very easy to use and therefore limited tester expertise is required.

The assessment can be performed in a very rapid fashion for all populations and both genders. The hand-held modalities commonly used in personal training make the assessment protocol virtually fool-proof.

It can be a fairly reliable method for examining improvements in body composition if all conditions are equal. CONS Bioelectrical impedance protocol was developed in the clinical setting, and it differs greatly from the protocol implemented within the personal training setting.

Assessment discrepancies though exist between the two. In the clinical setting, which correlates to a validity consistent with skinfold, electrodes are placed on the thin skin on the top of the hand and foot, and the participant is expected to lie on a non-conducted surface and in a completely resting state.

With the hand-held assessment commonly used in personal training, the skin thickness of the palms can have a significant effect on validity of the test, and the participant may not be aware of guidelines necessary for the test to be valid.

The test results can be negatively affected by hydration level, ambient and skin temperatures, skin permeability location of electrodesequation used, exercise or alcohol consumption within 24 hours prior to the test, the use of diuretics or specific medications, female menstruation, and the need to void the bowel and bladder before the assessment.

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: Limitations of skinfold measurements

How to Measure In the present study, we perceived several benefits of implementing the intervention within a worksite setting. A non-stretchable tape Seca girth measurement tape, SECA, Germany was used for the measurement of mid-upper arm circumference, waist, and hip circumferences. The research regarding which skinfold equation s most accurately predict body fat percentage in athletes is inconsistent, at best. Each of these sites must be located precisely on the body, and an X should be drawn on the skin to ensure proper jaw placement. The participating worksites included all the departments within these worksites and employed persons see figure 1. com
How Skinfold Assessment Works Anthropometric measurements. Article CAS Google Scholar Niknian M, Linnan L, Lasater T, Carleton R: Use of population-based data to assess risk factor profiles of blue and white collar workers. Acknowledgment The paper was presented at 53 rd IDACON — Virtual International Conference of Indian Dietetic Association. Drawing conclusions when measuring too frequently and looking at the individual values is dangerous. As food can affect the result it is the same with caffeine and alcohol.
Most Popular Articles Application of a sub-set of skinfold sites for ultrasound measurement of subcutaneous adiposity and percentage body fat estimation in athletes. Close Search. Measuring body composition. Our mission is to improve the performance of athletes and teams around the world by simplifying sports science and making it practical. The ICC worksite is the random intercept variance at worksite level divided by the total variance of the outcome measure, the ICC person is the random intercept variance at worksite level plus the random intercept variance at person level divided by the total variance of the outcome measure. The aim of this study was to compare body fat percentage obtained using four-site skinfold thickness SFT measurement with bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA of young women.
Body composition methods: validity and reliability Lean, M. Body composition analysis BCA provides an insight to nutritional status, functional capacity of the human being, in formulating nutritional management and for observing of therapeutic nutrition intervention 1,2,3. After the 2-year period the hospital was in negotiation regarding a specific bike-scheme. There are a number of limitations of this study, including those concerning the generalizability. Wang, J. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Learn more X.

Arq Sanny Pesq Saúde, 1 2 ; Armstrong, L. Assessing Hydration Status: The Elusive Gold Standard. Journal of the American College of Nutrition , 26 sup5 , S—S. Kinanthropometry and Sport Practice. Universita degli Studi di Ferrara. Burke, L. Nutrition Strategies for the Marathon Fuel for Training and Racing, 37 , — Donini, L.

How to estimate fat mass in overweight and obese subjects. International Journal of Endocrinology , , 1—9. Evaluation of body composition using three different methods compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. European Journal of Sport Science , 9 3 , — V, Charlesworth, S. Prediction of DXA-determined whole body fat from skinfolds: importance of including skinfolds from the thigh and calf in young, healthy men and women.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 59 5 , — Reliability and validity of bioelctrical impedance in determining body composition. Journal of Applied Physiology , 64 2 , — Lean, M. Predicting body composition by densitometry from simple anthropometric measurements. AMerican Journal of Clinical Nutritiom , 63 , 4— Norton, K.

Anthropometrica: A Textbook of Body Measurement for Sports and Health Courses. Australian Sport Commission, Ed. Sydney, Australia. a, de Oliveira, G. Technical error of measurement in anthropometry.

Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte , 11 , 81— A physical profile of elite female ice hockey players from the USA. Body fat measurement in elite sport climbers: Comparison of skinfold thickness equations with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Journal of Sports Sciences , 27 5 , — com Follow up your progress using a technique to measure the muscle cross-sectional area. Retrieved from www. php on March 31, Schmidt, P.

Static and Dynamic Differences among Five Types of Skinfold Calipers Author s : Paul K. Schmidt and J. Journal of Human Biology , 62 3 , — Siri, W. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods.

Techniques for Measuring Body Composition. Washington: National Academy of Sciences , — Stewart, A. International Standards for Anthropometric Assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The current faces more resistance passing through body fat than it does passing through lean body mass and water.

Equations are used to estimate body fat percentage and fat-free mass. Individuals are weighed in air and while submerged in a tank. Fat is more buoyant less dense than water, so someone with high body fat will have a lower body density than someone with low body fat.

This method is typically only used in a research setting. This method uses a similar principle to underwater weighing but can be done in the air instead of in water.

Individuals drink isotope-labeled water and give body fluid samples. Researchers analyze these samples for isotope levels, which are then used to calculate total body water, fat-free body mass, and in turn, body fat mass. X-ray beams pass through different body tissues at different rates.

So DEXA uses two low-level X-ray beams to develop estimates of fat-free mass, fat mass, and bone mineral density. These two imaging techniques are now considered to be the most accurate methods for measuring tissue, organ, and whole-body fat mass as well as lean muscle mass and bone mass.

There are several different methods to perform a caliper test, but one of the more accurate versions is the 7-site test using the Jackson and Pollock equation for body density.

The 7 sites on the body are shown here:. Each of these sites must be located precisely on the body, and an X should be drawn on the skin to ensure proper jaw placement. The abdominal site, for example, is 2 cm to the right of the belly button.

If you have two people with a different level of experience perform consecutive tests on the same person, the chances of getting a consistent accurate measurement drop significantly.

Locating each site accurately is only the first hurdle to completing an accurate test. These can be only properly placed if each site is marked with an X. However, just placing the X on the skin is only half the challenge.

For example, when pinching the subscapular shoulder blade site, the upper jaw must be placed directly on the X mark. This is in contrast with how the jaws must be placed for the tricep pinch; in this case, both jaws must be placed on either side of the X. If these small but critical procedures are not followed, accuracy may drop.

Proper technique extends beyond handling the calipers. This allows the skin to compress properly for an accurate reading. Depending on skinfold thickness, taking a reading immediately after pinching can distort the results.

Calipers use the sum of skinfold measurements to report body fat percentage. But in order to turn the measurements into a fat percentage, two equations need to be used — one to calculate density and one to change density into body fat percentage. The Jackson-Pollock Equation is frequently used to measure body density and is typically the first step to determining body composition.

The equation looks like this emphasis added :. Notice how age is an important variable in the equation. However, by accounting for age, the Jackson-Pollock Equation makes inherent assumptions about the effect age may have on body density, which ultimately influences the final body fat percentage result.

These assumptions can misrepresent people who fall outside of normal ranges for their age. Consider a year-old man, who leads an inactive lifestyle, and has a body composition and body fat percentage that the Jackson-Pollock Equation considers to be average for his age.

Now consider the same man, but assume that he has been very physically active for the entire duration of his life and has more muscle and a lower body fat percentage than your average inactive year-old.

His skinfold measurements will obviously be different as well. However, regardless of the skinfold measurements or the lifestyle, both versions of this man will be subject to the same adjustment for age , which will skew the accuracy of the body fat percentage measurement towards what is considered average for a year-old man.

This means that in our example, the inactive year-old man will have results that reflect his body composition, but the very fit and athletic version of a year-old man may have his body fat percentage overestimated because he likely falls outside the average for his age group.

Calipers only directly measure the width of skinfolds; they rely on equations to take this data and turn it into meaningful body fat percentage results.

Limitations of skinfold measurements

Author: Vull

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