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Time-restricted eating schedule

Time-restricted eating schedule

This scbedule when study participants receive no Cshedule to change their Caffeine pills for concentration choices or activity levels. Cienfuegos S, Gabel K, Kalam F, et al. That eating window also improved blood pressure and blood sugar levels among firefighters with underlying health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Time-restricted eating schedule -

Supporters of intermittent fasting suggest that it can reduce the risk of several conditions and diseases. For example, a article suggests it can help decrease the risk of:. Some evidence suggests that time-restricted fasting may help with managing metabolic conditions.

Aligning when a person eats with their internal body clock may help optimize health and reduce the risk of conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver disease.

However, a meta-analysis indicates that intermittent fasting does not influence blood glucose or blood pressure. A article suggests that intermittent fasting, such as fasting, may help increase life span and promote a higher quality of life. However, the authors note that there are no long-term studies that show any cause and effect for fasting and aging or longevity.

The National Institute on Aging points out that, even after decades of research, scientists still cannot explain why fasting may lengthen life span.

As a result, they cannot confirm the long-term safety of this practice. Human studies in the area are limited, and the potential benefits of intermittent fasting for human longevity are not yet known.

As such, more research is necessary. The intermittent fasting plan has some associated risks and side effects. As a result, the plan is not right for everyone. Potential side effects and risks may include :. Individuals with a history of disordered eating may wish to avoid intermittent fasting.

The National Eating Disorders Association warns that fasting is a risk factor for eating disorders. The National Institute on Aging concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any fasting diet, especially for older adults.

The intermittent fasting plan is unsuitable for those who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or trying to conceive. People who wish to try the method or other types of intermittent fasting should talk with their doctor first, especially if they:.

Anyone who has any concerns or experiences any adverse effects of the diet should consult a doctor. While evidence indicates that the method may be helpful for diabetes prevention, it may not be suitable for those who already have the condition.

The intermittent fasting diet is generally not suitable for people with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, many forms of religious fasting list type 1 diabetes as an exemption due to the potential health risks. People with diabetes who wish to try the intermittent fasting plan should see a healthcare professional before making changes to their eating habits.

The intermittent fasting plan is a time-restricted form of intermittent fasting. It involves an 8-hour window for food consumption and fasting for 16 hours. Potential benefits may include weight loss, fat loss, and a reduction in the risk of some diseases.

People doing intermittent fasting should focus on eating high fiber whole foods and staying hydrated throughout the day. The plan is not right for everyone. Individuals who wish to follow the intermittent fasting diet should speak with a doctor or dietitian if they have any concerns or underlying health conditions.

Intermittent fasting is a diet plan that means consuming few to no calories on fasting day and eating normally on nonfasting days.

We look at the…. Intermittent fasting has many potential benefits. Tips to start include having a goal and choosing a suitable method. These findings will need to be confirmed by larger RCTs with longer follow-up.

Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT Approximately 1 in 10 US residents have type 2 diabetes T2D. Calorie restriction CR is generally encouraged as the first line of therapy to help people with T2D achieve their weight management goals and glycemic targets.

Another approach that limits the timing of food intake instead of the number of calories consumed has recently been popularized. This diet is termed time-restricted eating TRE and involves confining daily food intake to 6 to 10 hours and fasting for the remaining hours.

Only 2 TRE trials 7 , 8 to date have been conducted in adults with T2D. We hypothesized that the TRE group would achieve greater weight loss and larger reductions in HbA 1c levels, compared with a CR group and a control group.

The protocol for this randomized clinical trial was approved by the Office for the Protection of Research Subjects at the University of Illinois Chicago, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The full trial protocol and statistical analysis plan are provided in Supplement 1.

This study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials CONSORT reporting guidelines. The trial was a 6-month, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted at the University of Illinois Chicago between January 25, , and April 1, eFigure 1 in Supplement 2.

Inclusion criteria were as follows: previous diagnosis of T2D, HbA 1c levels between 6. Self-reported race and ethnicity data including Asian, Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White were collected given that Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adults have a high prevalence of T2D in the US.

Participants were randomized in a ratio to a TRE, CR, or control group. Randomization was performed by a stratified random sampling procedure by sex, age and years , BMI and , and HbA 1c level 6.

Participants were not blinded. Participants in the TRE group ate ad libitum between and pm daily and fasted from pm to pm the following day. During the 8-hour eating window, participants were not required to monitor caloric intake, and there were no restrictions on types or quantities of food consumed.

During the hour fasting window, participants were encouraged to drink plenty of water and were permitted to consume energy-free drinks.

Participants self-monitored adherence to the eating window using a log in which they recorded the times that they started and stopped eating each day.

Total energy expenditure was calculated using the Mifflin equation. at the beginning of the trial to develop individualized weight loss meal plans and self-monitored adherence to their calorie target by logging food intake into an app every day.

Control participants were instructed to maintain their weight and usual eating and exercise habits. Control participants visited the research center at the same frequency as the intervention participants to provide outcome measurements.

Participants in the TRE, CR, and control groups met with the study dietitian weekly from baseline to month 3 by telephone or Zoom and then biweekly thereafter. Body weight, adherence, medication changes, and adverse events were recorded during these calls.

Participants in the TRE and CR groups were also taught how to make general healthy food choices that conform to American Diabetes Association nutrition guidelines.

The medication management protocol was developed based on the literature. No medication adjustments were made for controls. All participants wore a continuous glucose monitor CGM [Dexcom G7; DexCom, Inc] for 10 days at baseline, month 3, and month 6. When participants were not wearing the CGM, they tested their blood glucose levels daily using a lancing device and glucose monitor.

The primary outcome of the study was percentage change in body weight among the TRE, CR, and control groups by month 6. Analytical methods are detailed in Supplement 1.

Reporting of serious adverse events followed requirements mandated by the University of Illinois Office for Protection of Research Subjects Supplement 1. P values generated from analyses of secondary outcomes were not adjusted for multiplicity and are considered descriptive.

We conducted an intention-to-treat analysis, which included data from all 75 participants who underwent randomization. Results are reported by intention-to-treat analysis unless indicated otherwise. A linear mixed model was used to assess time, group, and time × group effects for each outcome.

In each model, time and group effects and their interaction were estimated without imposing a linear time trend. In models for body weight, which was measured at 7 time points baseline and each of 6 months of follow-up , time was modeled with cubic splines.

All models were adjusted for baseline use of sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists to account for empirical baseline differences in medication use between treatment groups. For each outcome variable, linear modeling assumptions were assessed with residual diagnostics.

To account for the potential of nonuniform variances heteroskedasticity between treatment groups due to random chance, all CIs and P values from linear mixed models were calculated using robust variance estimators sandwich estimators.

To assess the effect of loss to follow-up on study findings, we conducted a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation.

Multiple imputation can incorporate observed data not otherwise accounted for in the model eg, using baseline insulin levels to impute missing time in euglycemic range to estimate multiple values for each missing data point and account for sampling variability.

Missing follow-up data were imputed under the assumption that systematic differences between missing and observed outcomes can be explained by baseline values of the outcome as well as baseline values of height and waist circumference and medication effect score and HbA 1c level for glycemic outcomes , and all previous time points of weight.

All analyses were performed using R software, version 4. We screened people and enrolled 75 participants Figure 1. Participants had a mean SD age of 55 12 years, mean SD BMI of 39 7 , and mean SD HbA 1c level of 8.

The reasons for participant attrition included personal reasons, inability to contact, not wanting to be in the control group, and motor vehicle crash. Both TRE and CR led to reductions in waist circumference by month 6, but not lean mass or visceral fat mass, compared with controls.

Relative to controls, BMI decreased in the TRE group by month 6, but not the CR group. Time in the euglycemic range and medication effect scores were not associated with treatment group in any pairwise comparisons at month 6 Table 2.

Medication use at baseline and month 6 is reported in eTable 1 in Supplement 2. Conclusions for body weight and HbA 1c level did not change from the primary analyses to the sensitivity analyses eTable 2 in Supplement 2 , demonstrating that the results are robust to misspecification of the missingness mechanism.

However, sensitivity analyses differed from primary analyses for some secondary outcomes: fat mass decreased in both the TRE and the CR groups by month 6 relative to controls rather than in the TRE group alone , and mean glucose levels decreased in the CR group only.

Conclusions did not change between the primary analysis and sensitivity analysis for any other secondary outcome. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were observed.

However, these changes were not associated with treatment group in any pairwise comparisons at month 6 Table 2.

Differences in dietary intake among groups are given in Table 3. The TRE group reported being adherent with their eating window a mean SD of 6. Participants in the TRE group reported finding their diet intervention easier to adhere to compared with CR group participants eFigure 3 in Supplement 2.

The daily eating window in the TRE group decreased from baseline to month 6 but remained unchanged in the CR and control groups Table 3. Dietary intake and physical activity did not differ over time or between groups Table 3. Occurrences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia did not differ between groups eTable 3 in Supplement 2.

Findings of this randomized clinical trial show that 8-hour TRE produced greater weight loss when compared with CR and a control condition. Despite the greater weight loss achieved by the TRE group, reductions in HbA 1c levels were similar in the TRE and CR groups compared with the control group.

Participants in the TRE group found it easier to adhere to their intervention and achieved greater overall energy restriction compared with the CR group. Medication effect score did not change in any group, and no serious adverse events were reported.

Only 2 clinical trials 7 , 8 to date have examined how TRE affects body weight in patients with T2D. Che and colleagues 8 demonstrated that 12 weeks of hour TRE without calorie counting reduced body weight by 3. Likewise, Andriessen et al 7 showed that 9-hour TRE produced 1. The weight loss produced by our 8-hour TRE intervention was slightly greater 4.

In contrast, the weight loss by the CR group was not significant relative to the control or TRE group. Since CR is commonly prescribed as a first-line intervention in T2D, it is likely that our participants had already tried calorie counting in the past, without success.

Time-restricted eating may have served as a refreshing alternative to CR, in that it only required patients to count time instead of calories, which may have bolstered overall adherence and weight loss in the TRE group.

Our findings for HbA 1c levels are comparable to other TRE trials in T2D 7 , 8 and the Look AHEAD Action for Health in Diabetes study, which implemented daily CR. However, both TRE and CR led to comparable reductions in waist circumference a surrogate marker of visceral fat mass. Evidence suggests that visceral fat mass may be a stronger factor associated with changes in glycemic control than body weight alone.

Our findings also show that TRE is safe in patients who are using either diet alone or medications to control their T2D. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adults are among the racial and ethnic groups with the highest prevalence of T2D in the US.

Time-restricted eating is an appealing approach to weight loss in that it can be adopted at no cost, allows patients to continue consuming familiar foods, and does not require complicated calorie counting.

Since the literature on TRE is still quite limited, 26 our trial may help to improve the health of groups with a high prevalence of T2D by filling in these critical knowledge gaps.

Our study has some limitations, which include the relatively short trial duration and the lack of blinding of participants. Moreover, a higher percentage of participants in the TRE group were using sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors and glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonists at baseline.

These medications could have influenced our body weight findings, 27 even though participants had stable weight before enrollment. To control for these confounding variables, we accounted for the use of these medications in the analyses of our primary and secondary outcomes.

In addition, we relied on self-reported dietary intake. Close Banner. Integrative Health expert reviewed. Author: Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD. By Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD. Registered dietitian. Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD is a registered dietitian and writer based in San Francisco.

She holds a master's degree in Clinical Nutrition from New York University and an undergraduate degree in Dietetics. Lauren Torrisi-Gorra, M. Registered Dietitian. Lauren Torrisi-Gorra, MS, RD is a registered dietitian, chef, and writer with a love of science and passion for helping people create life-long healthy habits.

What is TRE? What is time-restricted eating? Summary Time-restricted eating TRE involves restricting the number of hours a day that you eat food—usually to a six- to hour window.

There aren't typically restrictions on what you can eat during your feeding window. Benefits of TRE. It can enhance longevity by promoting cellular repair and autophagy.

It can promote weight loss via calorie restriction. It might help with blood sugar regulation. Research-backed tip: Pairing TRE with exercise might even amplify the metabolic benefits. A study found that limiting food intake to less than 10 hours per day and participating in three sessions of high-intensity interval training HIIT per week improved hemoglobin A1c , a marker of long-term blood sugar control, and decreased body fat more significantly than either TRE or HIIT alone.

Sample schedules. Early eating:. Black coffee or tea no milk, cream, or sugar 7 a. Veggie omelet with whole wheat toast 10 a.

Greek yogurt with fresh fruit and walnuts 12 p. Baked chicken with quinoa and broccoli End at 3 p. Sesame tofu chopped salad. Midday eating:. Below is a sample meal plan for this TRE schedule:.

Black coffee or tea no milk, cream, or sugar 11 a. Frittata with spinach and tomatoes 2 p. Burrito bowl with healthy protein and fajita veggies 4 p. Hard-boiled egg End at 7 p. Salmon with brown rice and asparagus.

Late eating:. Late TRE generally requires you to skip breakfast and eat a late lunch. If you're interested in trying late TRE, here's a sample schedule:. Black coffee or tea no milk, cream, or sugar 2 p.

Sandwich or wrap with side salad 5 p. Chia pudding with berries and nut butter 7 p. Pasta with vegetables End at 10 p.

Schedhle fasting is currently one Tmie-restricted the most popular Vegan gluten-free options programs around. Unlike diets that tell you what to eat, intermittent fasting Time-restricted eating schedule on when scuedule eat. Inflammation and allergies schsdule is a broad term Time-restrictd refers to multiple specific eating patterns. Each type of intermittent fasting includes fasting periods that are longer than a normal overnight fast of 8—12 hours. An example of time-restricted eating is if you choose to eat all your food for the day in an 8-hour period, such as from 10 a. The remaining 16 hours each day are the fasting period, during which no calories are consumed. Aeting energy-restricted diets or intermittent Time-rwstricted interventions Time-restricted eating schedule Time-restrcited on weight loss, many of Time-restricted eating schedule health-related benefits of TRE Timer-estricted independent Caffeine pills for concentration reductions in body weight. However, Hunger suppression strategies research to date Inflammation and allergies largely ignored what food is iTme-restricted i. To Timme-restricted some of the potential mechanisms underpinning earing benefits of TRE on metabolic health, Sun protection studies need to increase the rigor of dietary data collected, assessed, and reported to ensure a consistent and standardized approach in TRE research. This Perspective article provides an overview of studies investigating TRE interventions in humans and considers dietary intake both what and when food is eaten and their impact on selected health outcomes i. Integrating existing dietary knowledge about what food is eaten with our recent understanding on when food should be consumed is essential to optimize the impact of dietary strategies aimed at improving metabolic health outcomes. Keywords: diet; energy intake; fasting; nutrition; timing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.

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