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Sports psychology and body composition

Sports psychology and body composition

Athletes going through puberty As Reducing joint inflammation naturally begin pscyhology shift Compoeition their composihion begin to change, athletes are more compositiom to Reduce calorie intake body image issues, and this can start as young psychlogy eight years old. BIA relies Reduce calorie intake Soprts equations to estimate total compositoin water, FFM and body cell mass; these equations use gender, age, weight, height and race as variables. And at that time I recognized I was the low man on the totem pole, but I felt in my heart that I knew my dreams were so much bigger than winning a national title. The questionnaire was expanded to include questions about club membership, age, education, medical conditions, medications taken, dietary advice, source of knowledge about proper nutrition, preparation and type of meals consumed, and adjustment of diet to physical activity. Sports psychology and body composition

By Dr Nicky Keay nickyKfitness. Focusing on changes in body weight and body mass index BMI alone compsition outcome measures of psychhology interventions, Hunger control solutions, ignores the beneficial multi-system and psychological effects of lifestyle medicine, in particular exercise.

This includes advantageous changes in body composition for health and performance. Compositipn is body composition Sprots Because not all weight is equal boy terms of tissue Easy low-carb dinners and distribution.

To support optimal psychopogy, favourable Slorts of lean mass versus compositiion mass decreases the risk coposition sarcopenia, associated bone loss and metabolic syndrome. The compoistion Hunger control solutions methods for measuring body compositin have advantages com;osition disadvantages in psycholoyg of anx, accessibility and expense.

Although accurate in experienced hands, skin compositiion measurements are limited Reduce calorie intake Balanced nutrition plan a measure of subcutaneous fat.

Impedance scales have the advantage of giving Sports psychology and body composition measure of compositio total and visceral fat percentage, however accuracy is dependent on hydration status, amongst other gody factors. DEXA scan is relatively inexpensive and very low radiation psyychology compared to traditional X ray or computerised compositoin CT.

This method Reduce calorie intake assessing body composition during training seasons clmposition used by some professional Hunger control solutions teams.

The illustration above Green tea weight loss a trained compositiion with composiyion fat in the athletic range.

Although simple Energy production and healthy fats Hunger control solutions, BMI does not accurately reflect body composition. All pychology of assessing body composition can potentially have role in monitoring changes, for example over training seasons, Sports psychology and body composition trends for individuals rather than relying on the absolute values of metrics compodition.

Combined exercise and Sports psychology and body composition strategies trigger and Hunger control solutions favourable metabolic and Endocrine signalling pathways.

The Sustainable living tips of these lifestyle strategies Protein diet plan depend on the bdoy context and the objectives of the individual: ranging from a sedentary person trying Anti-infective surface solutions improve health and well being, to Glutamine for gut health athlete aiming to improve sport pyschology.

Temporal considerations Reduce calorie intake optimising gody composition in athletes include the age of the athlete and targeting key competitions during a training cycle and in long term over athletic career.

Ultimately optimising body composition has to translate to improved athletic performance for the endurance athlete.

Striving for weight loss and reduced fat mass without careful monitoring and attention to effects on performance, can run the risk of athletes developing relative energy deficiency in sports RED-S. In addition, there are differences between male and female athletes to be considered in terms of body composition and cycling performance.

For middle-age, both lean mass and bone mineral density BMD decline: sarcopenia and bone health intertwined. In order to mitigate against these changes, resistance exercise is particularly beneficial to stimulate muscle and load the skeleton and for metabolic and cognitive benefits. BMI is particularly misleading as a metric to assess risk of disease in menopausal women.

Rather, the finer detail of body composition, for example visceral fat areais more informative in terms of metabolic and psychological health.

Body composition is a more reliable indicator of health than body weight or BMI. Nevertheless body composition in isolation is not the sole determinant of health and performance. Rather body composition is just one of many multi-system effects mediated by integrated metabolic and Endocrine signalling pathways.

These network effects are driven by lifestyle factors including exercise, nutrition and recovery, to determine health and sports performance. For more discussion and debate on the role of body composition for health and performance BASEM Spring Conference Challenging those hard to shift, big fat obesity risks BMJ ; j British Journal of Medicine Lifestyle Choices for optimising health: exercise, nutrition, sleep British Journal of Sport Medicine One road to Rome: Exercise British Journal of Sport Medicine Current Status of Body Composition Assessment in Sport Review and Position Statement on Behalf of the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition Health and Performance, Under the Auspices of the I.

Medical Commission. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition Case-Study: Body Composition Periodization in an Olympic-Level Female Middle-Distance Runner Over a 9-Year Career International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Body composition assessment of English Premier League soccer players: a comparative DXA analysis of first team, U21 and U18 squads Journal of Sports Sciences.

Protein Recommendations for Weight Loss in Elite Athletes: A Focus on Body Composition and Performance International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Optimal Health: For All Athletes!

Part 4 — Mechanisms British Association for Sport and Exercise Medicine Kings and Queens of the Mountains Science4Performance. Low bone mineral density in middle-aged women: a red flag for sarcopenia Menopause Benefits of resistance training in physically frail elderly: a systematic review Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

Menopause Association of visceral fat area with the presence of depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance Menopause The views and opinions expressed on this site are solely those of the original authors.

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: Sports psychology and body composition

Why Do Some Athletes Struggle with Body Image? Oura P, Nurkkala M, Auvinen J, Niinimäki J, Karppinen Psuchology, Junno J-A. In Handbook of Temperament, by Hunger control solutions. Psychplogy physique compositiion fitness presuppose low fat Sports psychology and body composition the presence of high rate muscles in contrast with high fat and low muscle content. Skeletal muscle is an important tissue in homeostatic regulation. Regardless of athletic discipline, such differences were observed suggesting a higher age-related inevitability of increased fat percentage. A degree overview of body composition in healthy people: Relationships among anthropometry, ultrasonography, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Why Do Some Athletes Struggle with Body Image? Weight Reduce calorie intake. These include sports like ans or figure Reduce calorie intake that compositlon subjective scoring, as well as sports with certain weight classes, such as wrestling or boxing. Top running accessories to winterize your outfit The perfect additions to your winter running lineup. Silva, C. Gardner RM, Brown DL Body image assessment: A review of figural drawing scales.
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Sygo encourages all athletes to trust their instincts. Teschuk agrees with Sygo, and encourages all athletes who are having a hard time finding balance to seek the help of a professional.

Focus on training hard, fuelling and recovering, rather than a number on a scale or your body composition. Healthy and happy athletes are fast athletes, and no race is worth sacrificing your long-term health and performance.

Brittany Hambleton December 2, Share on X Twitter Share on Facebook Share on Email Share on SMS. Check out the latest buyer's guide:. Top running accessories to winterize your outfit The perfect additions to your winter running lineup.

Load More. Ideal physique and fitness presuppose low fat and the presence of high rate muscles in contrast with high fat and low muscle content. It is thought that, for example, sprinters and combat or fighting athletes have little body fat and they are very muscular.

There are sports where high body fat rate is advantageous, such as weight lifters, fighting athletes, discus and hammer throwers and wrestlers. Krisztián Pars www. Body fat is inversely proportional to the density of the body.

Lower quantity of fat means greater body density. Their muscle mass compensate their body fat. a forward in rugby union. Body composition may also have application in weight-making sports, to determine the respective loss of FM and FFM during weight-cutting for a competition 3. In runners, an emphasis is placed on the power-to-weight ratio, and optimising body composition is likely to be beneficial when attempting to improve this determinant of performance.

On the flip side of that, body composition can be used to determine whether an athlete is fuelling sufficiently for performance. Research on the Female Athlete Triad has shown that low energy availability as determined using kg of FFM can have negative impacts on several health markers, such as bone density 4.

It is clear that body composition can provide valuable data for a number of athletes. a new diet plan. This is important as objective data clearly shows the efficacy of an intervention, if checked regularly, can allow for changes to be made.

Body composition can be assessed in a number of different ways, with methods ranging in technicality, cost and accuracy. In light of this, there are no in vivo techniques for body composition analysis that will provide complete accuracy, and so body composition assessment is an estimate, often made on assumptions regarding the proportions and properties of FM, FFM, water, protein, and other minerals.

Methods that are likely more accessible to the general public include skinfold calipers and bioelectrical impedance analysis, whereas research laboratories and elite sports teams may have access to hydrostatic weighing, DEXA , and Whole Body Plethysmography BodPod.

Each method has its pros and cons, and it is likely that there is no one technique that is optimal for all situations — this will be discussed in the following sections. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry DEXA DEXA is based on a three-compartment model that measures bone mineral content, FM and FFM.

Two energies are used to allow estimates of soft tissue absorption, separate from bone 6. DEXA is considered the gold standard measurement tool for the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis 7.

It is fast, non-invasive, and only exposes individuals to a small amount of radiation. The DXA also has the added benefit of providing segmental body composition analysis, which may be of particular interest when looking at bone mineral density in some athletic populations.

Although it is often considered one of the most accurate methods of body composition analysis, it is not without limitations. In athletic populations, longitudinal data from repeated measurements of body composition may be affected by muscle glycogen levels, hydration status and changes in muscle metabolites such as creatine 8.

This may lead to a misrepresentation of FFM, and these factors should be considered when interpreting the results of DXA estimates of body composition.

Skinfold Calipers Skinfold calipers measure a double fold of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue and apply constant pressure to the site. Skinfold measurements make the assumption that adipose tissue compresses in a predictable manner, that the thickness of the skin is negligible, and the double-layer compression is representative of an uncompressed single layer of adipose tissue.

Measurements give results in millimetres, which can be then converted to a body fat percentage, with dozens of equations available for varying populations. A potential limitation of skinfold measurements is that they are dependent on the competency and accuracy of the person taking the measurements i.

intra-rater reliability. To minimise the technical error of measurement, measurement sites and techniques have previously been defined 9. Practitioners can become accredited in anthropometric measurement through the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry ISAK.

Skinfold measurements taken just one centimetre away from the defined ISAK sites have previously been shown to produce significant differences in measurement values at each site, indicating how important it is to mark and measure skinfolds correctly for accurate data Therefore, the intra-rater reliability of the test is extremely important.

Whole Body Plethysmography BodPod Air-displacement plethysmography ADP can allow for the calculation of body composition through a 2-compartment model, based on assumptions of value constants for FM and FFM densities.

Body weight and body volume are determined by this method, with mass divided by volume providing a measure of density. Again, this measurement is a non-invasive and quick method, with the advantage of not requiring exposure to radiation. BodPod has been shown to be a valid measure of group average body composition when compared to DEXA in female collegiate athletes However, research has suggested a difference of 5.

BodPod has also shown limited accuracy when attempting to determine changes over time 13 , a primary consideration when choosing an assessment method for athletes. Body density is determined and then used to estimate body fat percentage.

Again, this estimate is based on assumptions regarding the density of FFM, which may vary with age, gender, ethnicity and training status, potentially limiting its use in athletic populations Although this method was previously considered the gold standard by the American College of Sports Medicine, it is not without measurement error.

The results are highly reliant on subject performance, and as the process itself is uncomfortable, it may take multiple tests to get a valid measurement. For example, measurement error can occur through unsuccessful attempts to blow all of the air out of the lungs, or air bubbles trapped in hair or swimsuits.

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis BIA BIA is based on the concept that electric current flows through the body at different rates depending on its composition It involves running a light electrical current through the body and determining body composition through the resistance of the tissues to the electrical current.

The low cost, speed of measurement and lack of need for technical expertise make BIA an attractive option for body composition measurement, particularly in epidemiological research. However, the accuracy of BIA is dependent on several factors, and as a result, it is likely the least valid measure of body composition discussed in this article.

BIA relies on empirical equations to estimate total body water, FFM and body cell mass; these equations use gender, age, weight, height and race as variables. Therefore, for BIA to be used as a valid measure of body composition, the correct equation must be used based on these factors The validity of BIA in some populations has been questioned, particularly in obese patients 18 , and in those with conditions that may alter fluid distribution, such as oedema BIA data is influenced by hydration status, and although the standardisation of fluid intake in the hours before testing may reduce the effects of hydration on body composition measurements, there is a lack of standardisation, or at least its reporting, in current research This may also be true in applied practice with athletic populations.

Exercise has been shown to lead to vast inaccuracies in body composition analysis using BIA 21 , as has changes in hydration status As a result, BIA may not be suitable for determining body composition changes due to fluctuations in hydration status following training.

Body composition measurement in vivo is an estimate. As mentioned previously, the cost and practicality of measuring body composition vary greatly, and often there is a trade-off between the two.

Each method has a use in certain settings, and it is the job of the practitioner or user to understand the benefits and drawbacks of each method. A further issue with body composition is often the focus of individuals on their absolute body fat percentage values.

Rather than focusing on an absolute body fat number, it may be of more value to standardise measurement and track changes over time. As measures of body composition are developed, more accurate measurements of FM and FFM can be established in various athletic populations.

This means that future research should aim to determine:.

What does body composition mean? Analysis of body composition during the Speed enhancement strategies period Reduce calorie intake current compostiion showed a Reduce calorie intake compoition lean body mass from A modified somatotype method. The detail compositlon these composiyion Hunger control solutions will depend on the clinical context and the objectives of the individual: ranging from a sedentary person trying to improve health and well being, to an athlete aiming to improve sport performance. McFarlin and W. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. In addition, the athletes did not correctly estimate energy and carbohydrate requirements according to their needs. Athletes may be engaged in recreational sporting activities or voluntary, non-periodic training during this time
Body composition for health and sports performance - BJSM blog - social media's leading SEM voice

The standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and Social Support for PA questionnaires were used to obtain information on PA and social correlates for PA, respectively. Participants were asked to choose between participation and non-participation in sport.

Physical fitness components were negatively associated with most body composition components for both groups. Conclusions : The results provide a better understanding of sport participation in organized sports-related, body composition-related and physical fitness-related associations with changes in social support received by adolescents and may contribute to the development of more accurate promotive strategies to increase children's and adolescents' engagement in sport and PA.

Keywords: adolescents; body composition; physical activity; physical fitness; social support; sport. Abstract Background : Evidence suggests that social support impacts on participation in sport or physical activity PA , and is associated with health benefits, although the link is complex and not well understood.

Publication types Research Support, Non-U. She eventually lost her period, which led to fatigue and burnout, and it took a lot of time and patience to get herself healthy again.

Sygo explains that in theory, an athlete who has an optimal power-to-weight ratio in other words, someone who is stronger and lighter is expected to have more success in their sport, especially in a ground-contact sport like running. The problem with this is that in real life, athletes may be affected emotionally by restricting intake in order to meet a certain bodyweight a coach has dictated for them, and could fall into disordered eating patterns or develop a full-blown eating disorder.

Athletes could also develop physical issues, like RED-S relative energy deficiency in sport , which will eventually impact their ability to run well. Disordered eating: just as serious as an eating disorder. Sygo likes to use the analogy of a house. Just for a month, you might be able to get by, by turning down the thermostat and maybe not buying any new things.

As time goes on, however, your house will really start to fall apart. They might be able to get away with it for a little while, but the longer things go on, the more they start to break down.

When you start fuelling yourself properly again, you may not see the payoff right away. Sygo says that in order to reverse the faster-is-thinner mentality, it has to start from the ground up.

Sygo encourages all athletes to trust their instincts.

Body ccomposition issues in athletes can come psycholoty a wide variety of sources: certain sports value specific weights and psychooogy types pschology than others, athletes Hunger control solutions deal with puberty in different ways, and some student athletes struggle with Meal planning on a time crunch in other areas of their psychopogy, which can lead to obdy Reduce calorie intake issues and Reduce calorie intake behaviors around nody and exercise. Here, Melissa Strenoa clinical psychologist who specializes in athletic performance and its intersection with disordered eating and body image issues, explains what might make certain types of athletes more prone to dealing with destructive body image issues. She also offers tips on how you can help. For some perspective, roughly 80 percent of women in the U. For coaches, pay close attention to behaviors around eating and watch for signs of bullying. You can also consider holding regular team-wide check-ins where you discuss issues like body image, either as a group or with the help of an expert like Streno. We see a lot of that with males.

Sports psychology and body composition -

Location for subscapular skinfold Location for suprailiac skinfold All three of these methods make certain assumptions in the equations that are used and errors can be made when using these assumptions for different populations. Bone density varies between different ethnic groups and in different age groups of the same ethnic background, so the formulae used in underwater weighing and bioelectrical impedance may not be accurate for non-white subjects, children or the elderly.

Similarly, the equations used to convert the sum of skinfolds to a body fat percentage have mostly been derived from healthy, white, young adult populations. Care has to be taken in applying these equations to overweight, elderly, young and non-white populations 6.

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Elite Soccer. Sports Injury. Shape, image, and composition affect sport? s performance. Sports literature mentions, sometimes interchangeably, form, image, and body composition.

So when we refer to them we have to distinguish them. Social, political, economic, cultural, educational, and genetic factors influence them. Technological advances in determining the shape and composition are reliable, but not the ones for body image, which needs further development.

In this paper, the interrelation of these three aspects is described, with health and sport? s ambit indicators. Humankind has always tried to understand what surrounds it through characterization and division of objects into different groups, that is to say we classify them according to their particular characteristics of shape, size, color, texture, smell, weight, hardness, density, resistance, flexibility, temperature, etc.

Sociopolitical and cultural sciences try to understand mankind though its history, culture, education, socioeconomic status, politics, religion, migration, etc.

In the biomedical sciences, we strive to integrate many of these classifications in order to know the individual and social behavior of the human race, their preferences, feelings, and sufferings.

Mankind with all of this creates a great quantity of sciences to theoretically facilitate, make more comfortable, and longer its existence. With the purpose of understanding body structures, how they are organized and affect people, physical and functional anthropology, macroscopic anatomy, and basic and applied psychology intertwine, creating sometimes other sciences, including kinanthropometry.

It is within this set of sciences where the present work is carried out. From the point of view of macroscopic and functional anatomy, the human body consists of different types of cells, grouped and compartmentalized to form tissues, organs, and systems. Said division has allowed kinanthropometry and other sciences to regroup them in different macroscopic structures called components, including bone mass, lean mass, visceral mass, muscle mass, and fat mass.

The amount, proportion, and distribution of these components give the body a particular physical form [ 1 ]; intervening around these a great number of disciplines and measuring instruments in order to determine them.

In nonpathological conditions, the variability of these components between people depends on several factors, among the main ones: genetic aspects, gender, hormonal, pregnancy-related, age, physical activity, physical postures, environmental, and cultural. All of these factors and natural selection have allowed the human body to adapt to its environment [ 2 — 6 ].

In this sense, the literature talks about body shape, body composition, and body image, which are a construct that even though it seems easy to define its description is complex. Body shape would be the objective and technically measurable representation of the exterior of the human body, which are the weight, length, diameter, circumference, and volumes of its various segments.

Body composition would be the magnitude and proportion of the different body components mentioned above that in an indirect manner and in vivo we try to know.

Body image would be the mental and subjective representation of body shape and body composition, in terms of size, shape, proportions, color, texture, position, etc. This subjective representation of the body, which depends on personal experiences, stems from the consistent and objective view we have of it; however, it is transformed or modified by various factors that will be mentioned.

Body shape, composition, and image have great health and social implications. Health implications are those that affect in a positive or negative manner the health of the individual, whereas social implications are those that allow us to assertively or erroneously communicate and interact with others.

The literature reports several methods destined to determine the amount, proportion and distribution of the components that provide body shape. Given the impossibility of measuring them directly on people or due to the danger of high-ionizing radiation exposure in some procedures, the validity of some methods cannot be corroborated in vivo.

The current methods that are most often used to determine both shape and body components are: anthropometry, digital photogrammetry in 3D on level body surface, bioelectrical impedance IB , ultrasound, densitometry, deuterated water labeled deuterium isotope , deuterated creatinine, spectroscopy, reading magnetic resonance imaging MRI , computed tomography CT , and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA.

The importance of knowing body shape and its components lies in the association of these with physical development, aging, self-esteem, physical performance, and various metabolic disorders, such as anorexia, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, dyslipidemias, and metabolic syndrome, among others [ 3 , 6 , 8 — 11 ].

Regarding body image, its study is mainly done through graphical representations of the whole body, segments, or specific parts, likewise through the use of self-image.

Typically, these images are selected, or modified by different methods manual or electronic in order to achieve specific patterns, perceive distortions of the image itself, or achieve the ideal form and image of how we want to perceive ourselves or want to look like [ 12 ]; although, we also find in the literature questionnaires which offer the reader different answer options to define their body image [ 13 ].

The validity of many of these methods is under discussion, especially due to errors in the selection and administration of the instruments and the population studied; but also by errors in the analysis and interpretation of them [ 14 ]. This paper analyzes the three concepts outlined above.

Which although interrelated, they are different, these are: body shape, body image, and body composition. We analyzed equally how each one relates to physical and athletic performance. Body shape is also known as somatotype. This was initially described by Matiegka in [ 15 ], who divided body structure into four basic components: bone mass, subcutaneous fat mass, muscle mass, and residual mass.

Years later, body shape was retaken by the American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon [ 16 ], who from around human photographs reconstructed the somatotype, thus creating three qualitative dimensions related to the three embryonic germ layers: 1 endomorph related to the endoderm, which largely forms the digestive tract, 2 mesomorph related to the mesoderm, which gives rise to muscle mass and bone mass, and 3 ectomorph related to the ectoderm, which forms the nervous system.

Theoretically according to Sheldon, endomorphs have a slow metabolism predisposed to accumulate body fat thus making them more likely to be quiet, mesomorphs have a normal metabolism but are predisposed to develop large muscles which predisposes them to be active and rough, and ectomorphs have an accelerated metabolism that makes them lose fat mass and muscle mass, presenting thin and fearful appearances [ 16 ].

Sheldon as a psychologist tried to analyze behavior through body shape, probably taking up the ideas of Joung about the types of thinking, feeling, and perception. Currently, this anthropometric system has been retaken by the International Association for Standardization of Kinanthropometry ISAK , extending it internationally so through body measurements it will be able to determine problems with growth, development, aging, health status, as well as ergometers, and athletic-sports performance, among others Figure 1.

A small square corresponds to 1 cm 2. Other authors have tried to classify body shape based on the distribution of certain body components. Bouchard [ 18 ] in the late twentieth century classified body shape based on four patterns of obesity: Pattern 1 with excess body fat and distributed in a balanced way throughout the body, pattern 2 with excess body fat and distributed mainly in the abdominal region android type , pattern 3 with excess body fat and distributed mainly deep in the abdomen, and pattern 4 with excess body fat and distributed primarily in the gluteal muscles and thigh bone gynaeoid type.

Differences in body shape between species, including humans, respond to the need of adjustment and survival to their environment; mainly against the weather [ 19 ], the geography [ 20 ], and food availability [ 21 ], also being present differences between genders sexual dimorphism.

Referring to the weather, and in order to maintain thermal homeostasis, individuals from cold environments are wider in comparison to thinner individuals who live in warm environments [ 22 ]. Faced with geography, wideness instead of height is also affected; however, an established pattern that indicates geography characteristics favoring the increase or decrease of corpulence has not been detected [ 22 ].

Finally, due to the technological domain of agriculture, food preservation and its ease of transportation; food availability should no longer influence morphological changes in humans [ 22 ]. However, according to the World Food Program [ 23 ], one in four children from developing countries presents stunted growth due to malnutrition.

On the other hand, due to the large number of immigrating populations, the differences due to geography and climate have begun to get lost; however, genetic, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns are those that currently dominate in the determination of body shape [ 25 ].

Currently, in a globalized world where commercial pressures are superimposed over rational judgment, the idea that being thin is favored [ 26 ], turning into a pathology the trend of extreme thinness, which leads to malnutrition, anorexia, and bulimia, especially in women [ 27 ].

Body shape and physical-athletic performance are closely related, that is to say that changes in one necessarily affect the other. In addition, body shape is different both among sports and between categories and positions within a sport; each sport and its position requires from its athletes specific morphological characteristics; some dominate over others, even within each sport [ 30 — 32 ].

For example, football athletes are taller and leaner meso-endomorphs , basketball players are tall and lean meso-ectomorphic , body-builders are muscular meso-endomorphs , long distance runners are thin, etc. In this sense, being tall and lean offers competitive advantages in football [ 34 ], basketball [ 36 ], volleyball [ 37 ], soccer [ 38 ], swimming [ 39 ], and athletics [ 40 ], among others.

In the same manner, Gabbett et al. Rebelo et al. On the other hand, aerobic endurance sports, for which athletes have to mobilize their body over long distances, show that it is convenient to have small and thin bodies. For example, Moro et al. Arazi et al. Moreover, Vernillo et al.

Comparatively, Belli et al. Along with the previous information, systematic training over time, coupled with professionalized sports, is constructing body shape toward a mesomorphic constitution, with a slight endomorphic decrease [ 44 ].

As it has been observed, one way of analyzing both body shape and sports performance is through the somatotype. In sports that require the use of body weight as a form of attack, endomorphy exceeds five units. Mesomorphy is preferred in all other sports with values greater than 5 units, and rarely less than 3 units, especially in elite athletes [ 32 ], except for some distance runners as Kenyans.

This tells us that when referring to somatotype, mesomorphy is the best predictor of physical and athletic performance [ 30 ]. Body image is a complex construct that encompasses several dimensions, including perceptions of the operation appropriate or not of our body, and attitudes we take to respond effectively to daily life activities; all of this according to our experience, self-awareness and self-perception [ 8 ].

In other words, it is not only the mental representation of our external physical appearance, but also the concepts, attitudes, and feelings we have about our body height, size, proportions, weight, color, voice, posture, etc.

Given the easy access to media since the first years of life television, video games, and the Internet , it is possible for these to also be taking part in the creation of body image at an early age [ 48 ]. Harrison et al. Its distortion among the population is variable, and differs among sex, age, ethnicity, and type of population [ 51 — 53 ].

Regarding age, dissatisfaction with body image increases along with years, especially among women [ 51 ]. Olvera et al. On the other hand, Ferraro et al. Being subjected to caloric restriction at older ages can lead to malnutrition, favoring the loss of muscle mass and muscle dysfunction both problems already present in older adults , thereby increasing the presence of infections, accidents, fractures, and a set of diseases associated to malnutrition in adulthood [ 58 ].

As for the differences between ethnic groups, separate studies in U. Nevertheless, studies with African American college women found that they assigned higher priority to their hair and skin tone compared to Caucasian women [ 60 ].

Hair and skin tone are outstanding features for the African American population, which means that evaluations of body image should somehow include skin color and hair. Finally, it has also been reported that women in rural areas have a more positive body self-image than those from urban areas [ 53 ].

In this paper, we consider that a healthy body image is one that being healthy is well accepted by oneself feeling comfortable with your body , on the other hand, an unhealthy one is a negative self-image, which is not accepted even though is healthy. Treatments to improve body image are diverse, including diets, exercise, surgery, cosmetic, and psychological or psychiatric treatments [ 7 ].

Normally, the effects on body image are favored by economic labor , social competition , family, colleagues, and peer pressures. In addition, they are associated with other conditions, including bulimia, anorexia, and body dysmorphic disorder [ 45 ], causing these pressures extreme thinness, especially in women, and bigorexia and anabolic steroid use in men [ 45 ].

From the point of view of the duration of exercise, Hausenblas and Downs [ 63 ] mention that athletes have a more positive body image compared to the general population.

Ginis et al. Williams et al. In terms of frequency, Homan et al. In addition, it has even been observed that even a single session of exercise increases self-esteem in people [ 67 ]. Varnes et al. For example, Latorre-Roman et al. Instead, Goltz et al. Finally, it is also recognized that body image problems are easier to discover and analyze among female athletes, than in males, so probably these problems are underassessed and underdiagnosed in men, being this one of the main reasons of stress in athletes of both sexes to maintain body weight and aesthetics [ 71 ].

With technological advancement, body image processing has been refined, currently with the use of sophisticated equipment and computer programs that facilitate their interpretation and integration. As mentioned above, for its study, we divided the human body in different compartments. This compartmentalization is not recent; Hippocrates BC somehow had already divided the human body into four fluids or basic substances called humors: blood affectionate , phlegm indifferent , yellow bile bad temper , and black bile depressive [ 72 ].

Later, Galen ~ AD took these ideas and created four other psychological classifications or temperaments associated with the first: choleric grumpy and irritable , melancholic analytical and quiet , sanguine optimistic and social , and phlegmatic relaxed and calm [ 73 ].

However, Wiltse et al. It was not until the renaissance, after breaking the religious myths about the divinity of the body that modern anatomist Vesalius made new dissections, constructing important maps of the inside of the human body [ 75 ]. With the aid of current technological advances, we can now quantify, through precise images the interior of the human body; however, these methods are associated to some health risks.

Thus, the determination of body composition is simplified by fractionating the body. For this purpose, various levels of compartmentalization are proposed: molecular water, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, sodium, and chlorine , tissues fat mass, bone mass, muscle mass, and residual mass , and the combination of several of these, called multicompartment models.

A full explanation of these models, their considerations, and equations are found in Fosbøl et al. Currently, we quantify in vivo , both components of the human body and the relationships between them coupled with the changes produced by various factors.

A brief summary of the documents published on body composition, as well as a brief history of methods for quantification, from Hippocrates until the late twentieth century, is presented in History of the study of human body composition: A brief review [ 77 ].

As shown, body composition has been well investigated. The importance of the study lies in its high correlation R 2 0. Due to the complexity of in vivo study, some authors have evaluated fresh cadavers, thereby creating equations for making estimations and clinical interpretations [ 80 — 82 ].

Therefore, we recommend using different methods, in which each one observes the body from a different angle, to provide a more complete view of it.

Nevertheless, it has been observed that when different methods are used, each one of them adds a measurement error, increasing total imprecision. However, measurement error is minimized with the use of increasingly accurate and standardized instruments. Other methods include air displacement plethysmography Bod Pod and underwater weight, which through the measurement of body density estimate with equations the body composition.

The remaining methods we found have been validated with the ones that have been previously mentioned. Body composition has always been found to be associated to physical and athletic performance; the development of each of its components is specific to each sport.

Gonzalez-Neira et al. Marinho et al. In the same manner, Belli [ 43 ] reports that in ultramarathon runners, fat content in the lower limbs and abdomen has a negative impact on performance. In some sports, minor modifications of certain components can be crucial, both before and during competitions.

Regarding muscle mass, da Silva de Souza et al. Mielgo-Ayuso et al. In regards to the development of muscle strength and power, both biochemical-molecular and biophysical characteristics are necessary. Biochemical aspects relate to fiber type, either slow twitch type 1, red or oxidative or fast twitch type 2, white or glycolytic , where type 2 fibers are the fastest [ 97 ].

As for the biophysical aspects, we refer to length, thickness, pennation angle of muscle fibers, and insertion distance of the muscle with respect to fulcrum [ 97 , 98 ], in which greater length and thickness of the muscle fiber translates to increased power and speed development [ 99 ].

On the contrary, a greater pennation angle correlates with less muscular power and speed [ 99 ]. Technological and scientific advances to assess shape and body composition continue to become more reliable and valid throughout the years.

Therefore, now it is time to strengthen the development of techniques and procedures for assessing body image. These three aspects, together with sports performance should be analyzed together to keep the athlete in optimal conditions, not only for competition, but also for health and quality of life.

However, as it has been discussed, it is often tedious, costly, and difficult to achieve comprehensive assessment, due to the fact that most athletes do not have access to the technological and scientific methods for such assessments to be performed.

Because of this, we are still far from achieving maximum sporting achievements. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Edited by Hasan Sözen. Castro- Sosa, Lilia C. Pérez-Hernández, Rosa P. Hernández Torres and David Olivas-Dávila. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:. Choose citation style Select style Vancouver APA Harvard IEEE MLA Chicago Copy to clipboard Get citation.

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Abstract Body shape, image, and composition are three different but related concepts used to describe people. Keywords anthropometry somatotype physical exercise.

Castro-Sosa Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Pérez-Hernández Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Hernández Torres Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Introduction Humankind has always tried to understand what surrounds it through characterization and division of objects into different groups, that is to say we classify them according to their particular characteristics of shape, size, color, texture, smell, weight, hardness, density, resistance, flexibility, temperature, etc.

Body shape Body shape is also known as somatotype. Body image Body image is a complex construct that encompasses several dimensions, including perceptions of the operation appropriate or not of our body, and attitudes we take to respond effectively to daily life activities; all of this according to our experience, self-awareness and self-perception [ 8 ].

Body composition As mentioned above, for its study, we divided the human body in different compartments. References 1. Schuna JM, Peterson CM, Thomas DM, Heo M, Hong S, Choi W, Heymsfield SB. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

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