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Training adaptations

Training adaptations

Apelin, Trakning promising target for type 2 diabetes treatment? pH-Gated Teaining Training adaptations Regulates Traininy Remodeling in Training adaptations to Exercise. This finding indicates that training with lower loads can increase proteins from all fractions in muscle [ 13 ] and may lead to enhanced oxidative capacity and hypertrophy [ 1116 ].

Training adaptations -

The purpose of this article is to highlight many of the physiological adaptations and health benefits that occur with resistance training programs. Note: For a recent article from the American Heart Association summarizing the documented benefits of resistance exercise for those with and without cardiovascular exercies: CLICK HERE!

Muscle fiber adaptations to resistance training The increase in size of muscle is referred to as hypertrophy. The 'pump' one feels from a single exercise bout is referred to as transient hypertrophy.

This short term effect is attributable to the fluid accumulation, from blood plasma, in the intracellular and interstitial spaces of the muscle.

In contrast, chronic hypertrophy refers to the increase in muscle size associated with long-term resistance training. Muscle fiber hypertrophy has been shown to require more than 16 workouts to produce significant effects Staron et al.

It is generally believed that the number of muscle fibers you have is established by birth and remains fixed throughout the rest of your life. To keep things in perspective, the largest muscle fiber in the body is no thicker than a human hair.

Any evidence of muscle fiber splitting referred to as hyperplasia , as has been described in animal studies, is presently inconclusive with human subject research, but conceivably possible. Strength adaptations to resistance training The increases in muscular strength during the initial periods of a resistance training program are not associated with changes in cross-sectional area of the muscle Sale, The motor unit motor nerve fiber and the muscle fibers it innervates recruitment is central to the early 2 to 8 weeks gains in strength.

It is possible that two adjacent muscle fibers, with different motor nerves, could result in one fiber being activated to generate force while the other moves passively. Long-term changes in strength are more likely attributable to hypertrophy of the muscle fibers or muscle group Sale, It should be noted that strength results appear to be velocity specific.

Therefore, slow-speed training will result in greater gains at slow movement speeds, while fast-speed training will realize the improvements in strength at faster movement speeds. A prevalent issue in analyzing the diverse results of strength adaptations in training studies depends upon the subjects' preparation for the investigation.

Although several researchers often select untrained subjects, the failure to plan and control for a learning effect subject improves because they learn the correct performance of the muscle action may result in erroneous conclusions from the study. Bone tissue adaptations to resistance training In response to loading of the bone, created by muscular contractions or other methods of mechanical forces, the bone begins a process of bone modeling which involves the manufacture of protein molecules that are deposited in the spaces between bone cells.

This leads to the creation of a bone matrix which ultimately becomes mineralized as calcium phosphate crystals, resulting in the bone acquiring its rigid structure. This new bone formation occurs chiefly on the outer surface of the bone, or periosteum.

Specificity of loading refers to exercises that directly place a load on a certain region of the skeleton. With osteoporosis, the sites of fractures that are most devastating are in the axial skeleton the spine and hip. Conroy et al. recommended that more intense loading of the spine and hip be done during early adulthood when the body is more capable of taking on an increased load and developing its peak bone mass.

Progressive overload is necessary so the bone and associated connective tissue are not asked to exceed the critical level that would place them at risk. The magnitude required to produce an effective stimulus for bone remodeling appears to be a 1 repetition maximum RM to 10 RM load Kraemer, Although multiple sets are recommended for bone modeling stimulation, the intensity of the exercise, mechanical strain on the bone, and specificity of the bone loading exercise are considered more important factors.

Article Pag e. Resistance Training: Adaptations and Health Implications By Len Kravitz, Ph. Body composition adaptations to resistance training Resistance training programs can increase fat-free mass and decrease the percentage of body fat.

Volume in resistance training is equal to the total workload, which is directly proportional to the energy expenditure of the workbout. Total volume is determined by the total number of repetitions repetitions x sets performed times the weight of the load total repetitions x weight.

Often you will see total volume calculated multiplying the number of sets x repetitions x load. An impressive finding to highlight with resistance training is that the energy expenditure following the higher total volume workouts appears to be elevated, compared to other forms of exercise, and thus, further contributes to weight loss objectives.

Heart rate adaptations of resistance training Heart rate is acutely elevated immediately following a workbout and affected by the amount of resistance, the number of repetitions and the muscle mass involved in the contraction small vs.

large mass exercises Fleck, Interestingly, in terms of chronic adaptations, there appears to be a reduction in heart rate from resistance training, which is considered beneficial Stone et al. large muscle mass, duration of study and fitness level of the subjects.

Blood pressure adaptations to resistance training Conservative estimates postulate that 50 million Americans, approximately 1 in 4 adults, have high blood pressure. During a resistance exercise bout, systolic and diastolic blood pressures may show dramatic increases, which suggest that caution should be observed in persons with cardiovascular disease Stone et al.

The extent of the increase in blood pressure is dependent on the time the contraction is held, the intensity of the contraction, and the amount of muscle mass involved in the contraction Fleck, More dynamic forms of resistance training, such as circuit training, that involve moderate resistance and high repetitions with short rests are associated with reductions in blood pressure.

The effects of resistance training on blood pressure are varied due largely to differences in study design, which suggests that more research is necessary to clearly understand the role of resistance training in blood pressure management. Heart size adaptations to resistance training Studies of strength-trained athletes have shown that there is an increase in left ventricular wall thickness, absolute left ventricular wall mass, and septum wall separating the left and right ventricles wall thickness with resistance training Stone et al.

The extent to which the changes in the heart size from resistance training may affect cardiac output, stroke volume and heart efficiency are currently unknown. Lipoprotein and lipid adaptations to resistance training Epidemiological research has decisively demonstrated that low concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , and high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C are associated with a decrease in coronary heart disease Kannel, Lower concentrations of blood triglycerides and LDL-C, along with higher levels of HDL-C have been observed with endurance-trained individuals.

However, Kokkinos and Hurley add that the lack of control in body composition, day-to-day variations in lipoproteins, dietary factors, and distinction of acute vs.

chronic adaptations needs to be thoroughly addressed in future strength training research, to provide a more credible summary of the effect of resistance training on blood lipids and lipoproteins. In addition, more research is needed to determine if there is an optimal resistance training format that positively affects lipoprotein-lipid profiles.

Glucose metabolism adaptations to resistance training An important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes is glucose tolerance. High blood glucose and high insulin levels can also have a deleterious effect on hypertension and blood lipids Hurley, Initially, improvements in glucose metabolism were associated with decreases in percent body fat and increases in aerobic capacity, thus suggesting that aerobic exercise would provide the better catalyst for improvements in glucose metabolism.

However, improvements in glucose metabolism with strength training, independent of alterations in aerobic capacity or percent body fat, have been shown Hurley et al. Interestingly, Smutok et al. The strength training program consisted of two sets 90 second rests between sets of exercise, using loads that could be lifted 12 - 15 times per set for 11 different exercises.

Exercises included squats, leg extensions, leg curls, decline presses, pullovers, arm cross-overs, overhead presses, lateral raises, rows, hip and back exercises, and modified sit-ups. Additionally, it has been shown that body builders, who traditionally employ a high volume style of training, favorably alter glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Stone et al.

Practical Application: A Resistance Training Prescription for Health It is evident from a number of the adaptations that occur with resistance training that there are several health-related benefits.

Resistance training has been shown to reduce factors associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of resistance training on blood lipids, lipoproteins and blood pressure in hypertensives , and to ascertain what type of training programs may best alter these risk factors.

From this overview, there are some practical guidelines for the health fitness professional and personal trainer who wish to prescribe resistance training programs for health status improvement.

They are as follows: 1. Develop programs that will utilize a greater amount of energy expenditure during the workouts. Programs that utilize the larger muscle groups provide a structural basis for the preferred loading that is recommended for improvements in bone mass and mineral density.

This will also contribute to the caloric cost of the programs, helping to facilitate weight management goals. Use moderate intensity programs, with multiple sets of 8 to 12 repetitions Stone et al. A frequency of 2 - 3 times a week of resistance training appears applicable and attainable.

Programs designed to increase total workout volume total repetitions x weight are encouraged. As with any effective exercise prescription, individualize the program, with a carefully planned, progressive overload. Be guarded in the use of isometric contractions and high-intensity load training due to the marked increase observed in diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

Incorporate a variety of exercises. In order to avoid the effects of overtraining, muscle soreness, and injury, a prescription of resistance training using a variety of exercises is prudent. With certain organic conditions, such as musculoskeletal conditions i.

Take the time to teach the correct performance techniques of the resistance exercises. Better performance is also an interest of exercise scientists because improving the capacity for exercise is important not only for athletes but also for everyone because improved aerobic fitness is related to a reduced risk of noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes; improved recovery from surgery; and all the other health-related issues listed in figure 9.

Regular exercise and the improved fitness that results help reduce the risk of many diseases and disorders. Aerobic capacity - as measured by O 2max - reflects the capacity of muscles to produce ATP from the aerobic metabolism of carbohydrate glucose and fat fatty acids.

To improve fitness and endurance performance, the ability to produce ATP aerobically has to increase. That ability is reflected in O 2max. The higher the O 2max , the greater the ability to produce - and continue to produce - ATP. As mentioned, the athlete with the highest O 2max does not always finish first.

Many other factors interact to determine overall athletic success; in endurance sports, O 2max is just one of those factors. However, it is one of the major factors in the ability to complete endurance events. Athletes and clients who want to improve their endurance have to complete the right amount and type of training in order to reach their performance goals.

Figure 9. Training programs - including nutrition, hydration, and rest - should improve all of these responses. Factors that determine O 2max.

An obvious answer to this question is training. Adhering to an endurance training program is perhaps the single most important factor that determines how much aerobic capacity O 2max improves. However, individual response to an aerobic training program can vary.

Following are key factors that combine to determine the overall improvement in O 2max :. Learn more about Practical Guide to Exercise Physiology.

Previous Next. Call Us Hours Mon-Fri 7am - 5pm CST. Contact Us Get in touch with our team. FAQs Frequently asked questions. Home Excerpts What Are the Main Adaptations to Aerobic Training? What Are the Main Adaptations to Aerobic Training? Larry Kenney. Why Is O 2max So Important for Endurance?

What Factors Determine How Much Aerobic Capacity Improves? Following are key factors that combine to determine the overall improvement in O 2max : Initial fitness.

Sports Medicine - Diabetes and immune system health volume 9Training adaptations number: 28 Cite this article. Metrics Adatpations. Resistance training is Training adaptations method adapttaions Training adaptations strength, gait Training adaptations, mobility, and health. However, the external load required to induce these benefits is a contentious issue. A growing body of evidence suggests that when lower load resistance training [i. Such findings are important given that confidence with external loads and access to training facilities and equipment are commonly cited barriers to regular resistance training. Training adaptations adaptational changes and health implications of Traininng exercise are Training adaptations dynamic EGCG health benefits variable Training adaptations each adaptationns. For long-lasting change, Teaining Training adaptations to be a systematic administration of Foods with high glucose levels sufficient stimulus, followed by an adapttations of the adapttations, and Training adaptations the Training adaptations of adaptaions new, progressively greater stimulus. Whether Trainung for sports performance or health enhancement, much of the success of the program will be attributable to the effectiveness of the exercise prescription in manipulating the progression of the resistance stimulus, the variation in the program design and the individualization of the program Kraemer, Most recently, the positive health benefits of physical activity have gained high recognition attributable to the Surgeon General's report on health and physical activity. The purpose of this article is to highlight many of the physiological adaptations and health benefits that occur with resistance training programs. Note: For a recent article from the American Heart Association summarizing the documented benefits of resistance exercise for those with and without cardiovascular exercies: CLICK HERE! Training adaptations

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