Category: Family

Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports

Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports

Nestlé Nutrtion Institute Workshop Series, 7673 eports Abstract Introduction Muscle injuries are common among elite athletes Increase energy and focus compromise Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports and training schedules. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. In an event of injury involving immobilization and reduction of physical activity, it is important to avoid the anabolic resistance of muscle and the increase of the reactive species of nitrogen and oxygen, producing the proteolysis of the skeletal muscle. Sci World J. Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports

Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports -

A meal high in fat, protein or fibre is likely to increase the risk of digestive discomfort. It is recommended that meals just before exercise should be high in carbohydrates as they do not cause gastrointestinal upset. Liquid meal supplements may also be appropriate, particularly for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves.

For athletes involved in events lasting less than 60 minutes in duration, a mouth rinse with a carbohydrate beverage may be sufficient to help improve performance. Benefits of this strategy appear to relate to effects on the brain and central nervous system.

During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue. Current recommendations suggest 30 to 60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient, and can be in the form of lollies, sports gels, sports drinks, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread.

It is important to start your intake early in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period. It is also important to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices.

For people exercising for more than 4 hours, up to 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour is recommended. Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first one to 2 hours after exercise. While consuming sufficient total carbohydrate post-exercise is important, the type of carbohydrate source might also be important, particularly if a second training session or event will occur less than 8 hours later.

In these situations, athletes should choose carbohydrate sources with a high GI for example white bread, white rice, white potatoes in the first half hour or so after exercise. This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes. Since most athletes develop a fluid deficit during exercise, replenishment of fluids post-exercise is also a very important consideration for optimal recovery.

It is recommended that athletes consume 1. Protein is an important part of a training diet and plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair. Protein needs are generally met and often exceeded by most athletes who consume sufficient energy in their diet.

The amount of protein recommended for sporting people is only slightly higher than that recommended for the general public. For athletes interested in increasing lean mass or muscle protein synthesis, consumption of a high-quality protein source such as whey protein or milk containing around 20 to 25 g protein in close proximity to exercise for example, within the period immediately to 2 hours after exercise may be beneficial.

As a general approach to achieving optimal protein intakes, it is suggested to space out protein intake fairly evenly over the course of a day, for instance around 25 to 30 g protein every 3 to 5 hours, including as part of regular meals.

There is currently a lack of evidence to show that protein supplements directly improve athletic performance. Therefore, for most athletes, additional protein supplements are unlikely to improve sport performance.

A well-planned diet will meet your vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency. There is no evidence that extra doses of vitamins improve sporting performance.

Nutritional supplements can be found in pill, tablet, capsule, powder or liquid form, and cover a broad range of products including:. Before using supplements, you should consider what else you can do to improve your sporting performance — diet, training and lifestyle changes are all more proven and cost effective ways to improve your performance.

Relatively few supplements that claim performance benefits are supported by sound scientific evidence. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is also potentially dangerous. Supplements should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional.

The ethical use of sports supplements is a personal choice by athletes, and it remains controversial. If taking supplements, you are also at risk of committing an anti-doping rule violation no matter what level of sport you play.

Dehydration can impair athletic performance and, in extreme cases, may lead to collapse and even death. Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is very important.

Fluid intake is particularly important for events lasting more than 60 minutes, of high intensity or in warm conditions.

Water is a suitable drink, but sports drinks may be required, especially in endurance events or warm climates. Sports drinks contain some sodium, which helps absorption.

While insufficient hydration is a problem for many athletes, excess hydration may also be potentially dangerous. In rare cases, athletes might consume excessive amounts of fluids that dilute the blood too much, causing a low blood concentration of sodium. This condition is called hyponatraemia, which can potentially lead to seizures, collapse, coma or even death if not treated appropriately.

Consuming fluids at a level of to ml per hour of exercise might be a suitable starting point to avoid dehydration and hyponatraemia, although intake should ideally be customised to individual athletes, considering variable factors such as climate, sweat rates and tolerance.

This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Content on this website is provided for information purposes only.

Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.

The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website.

All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

The State of Victoria and the Department of Health shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website. Skip to main content.

Healthy eating. Home Healthy eating. Sporting performance and food. Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. This is in contrast to the omega-6 fatty acids much more prevalent in Western diets , which is a known stimulator of NF-κB activity and thus pro-inflammatory 2.

So far, so good. However, the problem however is that research on the necessary dose of omega-3 oils to elicit an anti-inflammatory effect in humans is still limited.

Nevertheless, taking the evidence in the round, it seems reasonable to assume that in the acute phase following an injury, athletes should try to increase their omega-3 intake and omega-6 intake. Inactivity results in rapid muscle loss, and the primary metabolic factor leading to muscle loss is decreased muscle protein synthesis.

Increased protein intake is often the first nutritional countermeasure considered for muscle loss. However, research shows that while protein or essential amino acid intake increases muscle protein synthesis both at rest and following exercise , this anabolic muscle building effect is blunted during prolonged periods of immobilization 4.

One possible way round this effect is to consume protein such as whey, which is rich in the amino acid leucine. Studies in elderly humans indicate that immobilization-induced resistance to muscle growth may be overcome by increasing the leucine content in the diet of ingested amino acids 5.

Furthermore, studies on rats in a catabolic state ie with a tendency towards muscle tissue loss have shown that leucine supplementation can reverse muscle protein losses, typically increasing muscle protein synthesis back to normal levels 6.

In addition, numerous other studies have demonstrated unequivocally that leucine-rich protein is superior to other proteins for stimulating the synthesis of muscle tissue.

From the above, it seems logical that consuming leucine-rich protein such as whey during an initial period of immobilization following an injury could be beneficial for an athlete.

The caveat however is that to date, no research has been carried out on the effects of leucine-rich protein supplementation on rates of muscle losses in injured and immobilized athletes. To reiterate however, any protein supplementation should consist of leucine-rich protein such as whey because research shows that this protein type is significantly more effective at promoting muscle synthesis than supplementing pure leucine as an amino acid 7.

Depending on the extent of mobilization, a substantial decrease in total energy expenditure is likely because exercise is either more difficult or virtually impossible. This explains the necessity for an injured athlete to significantly reduce energy intake to avoid excessive weight gain — weight that has to be lost once training resumes!

However, athletes should be cautious not to take this strategy too far. So, whereas the total energy intake may still need to be reduced, the reduction in calorie intake may not need to be too drastic. For example, if crutches are needed to aid walking, the energy expenditure per unit of distance covered is typically two to three times over that of regular walking.

A third caveat is that any insufficiency in energy intake will impair optimal muscle protein synthesis, in turn leading to greater muscle tissue loss.

A balance therefore needs to be struck, and overall, a small amount of weight gain which can be shed when you resume training may actually be preferable to a lack of calorie intake, which is needed to support proper muscle healing and minimize inactivity-related muscle protein loss.

Phase-two nutrition During the rehabilitation and increased activity phase, the goal is to restore muscle mass, strength and functionality. As mentioned above, leucine-rich protein consumed as whey has been shown to be a superior source of protein. However, with increasing activity, your total energy intake will need to rise accordingly.

In particular, adequate carbohydrate intake should be ensured to help fuel your increasing activity level, particularly as muscle protein synthesis is an energetically expensive process, which will further increase energy requirements.

Studies on muscle damage and recovery also suggest that immediate post-exercise feeding of protein combined with carbohydrate can further enhance muscle tissue synthesis 9,10 In terms of protein quantity, a number of studies suggest that approximately 0. As for timing and frequency of ingested protein, a landmark study compared three different frequencies of whey protein feeding on recovery and muscle repair over a hour period following training and an initial recovery drink 14 : 2 x doses of 40g every six hours 4 x doses of 20 grams every three hours 8 x doses of 10 grams every 1.

Of course, the gram portions of protein consumed later in the day do not have to be in the form of a recovery drink — meals and snacks are fine too. One study suggests that 40 grams of casein protein before bed stimulates muscle protein synthesis overnight And a recent study on subjects undergoing a week training program showed that a low-fat pre-sleep drink containing Summary of key recommendations for athletes During immobilization, ample energy and protein should be consumed.

Extra leucine intake in the form of whey protein should also be considered in an attempt to overcome the resistance to muscle tissue synthesis brought about by inactivity. During the rehabilitation period extra protein particularly in association with the exercise may increase muscle hypertrophy and speed the return to full activity.

For optimal recovery, ample protein and energy - ie sufficient carbohydrate - is necessary. In particular, the timing of protein intake may help muscle protein synthesis. While ample omega-3 intake is desirable for limiting excessive inflammation, athletes should resist the temptation to artificially to decrease inflammation by using anti-inflammatory medication which could be counterproductive to the healing process unless that inflammation has been clearly diagnosed as excessive or chronic.

Can they help speed injury healing, and if so, which nutrients are most effective? References Nutrients , 2, — Biochem. Read More Injury prevention: know your biorhythms!

No fear! Ensuring a successful return to sport after injury. Protein: are you getting enough? Sports nutrition: strengthening your immune system. Andrew Hamilton Andrew Hamilton BSc Hons, MRSC, ACSM, is the editor of Sports Performance Bulletin and a member of the American College of Sports Medicine.

Register now to get a free Issue. Register now and get a free issue of Sports Performance Bulletin Get My Free Issue. Latest Issue. January's issue out now Strength Training Sports Nutrition Fitness Monitoring Sports Injury Triathlon Training Download.

Subscribe Today. Unlimited Access Monthly Magazine Back Issue Library Email Newsletter. More on this Athletes: Yes or no to keto? L-Citrulline: what can the watermelon nutrient do for you? Drinks vs. gels: how to choose for maximum performance.

Vitamin K2: can it help you reach new performance heights? Yerba Mate: a real friend for endurance athletes? Newsletter Sign Up. Stay on the fast track of sports performance with our newsletter First Name.

Last Name. Initials of First Names. sign me up. Testimonials Dr. Great bang for your buck in terms of quality and content. I love the work the SIB team is doing and am always looking forward to the next issue.

Elspeth Cowell MSCh DpodM SRCh HCPC reg "Keeps me ahead of the game and is so relevant. The case studies are great and it just gives me that edge when treating my own clients, giving them a better treatment. Thank you for all the work that goes into supplying this CPD resource - great stuff". Further reading Injury prevention: know your biorhythms!

We explain how this can affect injury risk…. Ensuring a successful return to sport after injury Returning to training and competing after a long layoff can be an anxious experience.

Adam Nicholls provides you with a number of psychological strategies to make your return to sport much less daunting. Andrew Hamilton looks at the very latest research on protein intake for athletes. Are you really consuming enough to optimize your performance?

But the good news is that wit…. Editor's Picks Endurance and strength: YOU have the best of both worlds. Training intensity: is higher better, even for beginners? Endurance performance: can a short, sharp shock work wonders?

High-intensity training: are sprint intervals overhyped?

Preventiom injuries are common among elite athletes and compromise competitions and training enduranec. Within the interventions to treat a Healthy aging and bone strength injury, the nutritional approach is an to improve the physiological response and Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports the body composition to promote a quick Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports safe return dports the play. Present an overview of the nutritional strategies and recommendations after a muscular sports injury, emphasizing the use of main nutrients and elements for the muscle recovery, such as proteins, antioxidants, omega 3 fatty acids, and probiotics. The search of information was made in the PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Embase, and Google Scholar databases under specific DeCS and MeSh terms. The selected articles included literature reviews and clinical trials related to muscle injury in high-performance athletes, in any sports discipline or in immobilized patient healthy men or women. The stages of a muscle injury are classified as destruction-inflammation, repair, and remodeling phase. Click name to ercovery affiliation. Injuries are sprts inevitable consequence of athletic Ac interpretation with injurt athletes sustaining one or Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports during their sndurance careers. Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports many as DKA monitors and devices in 12 athletes incur an injury Obesity prevention awareness international competitions, many preventlon which result anf time endurancce from training and competition. Other prevenrion injuries include fractures, especially stress prevetion in athletes with low energy availability, and injuries to tendons and ligaments, especially those involved in high-impact sports, such as jumping. Given the high prevalence of injury, it is not surprising that there has been a great deal of interest in factors that may reduce the risk of injury, or decrease the recovery time if an injury should occur: One of the main variables explored is nutrition. This review investigates the evidence around various nutrition strategies, including macro- and micronutrients, as well as total energy intake, to reduce the risk of injury and improve recovery time, focusing upon injuries to skeletal muscle, bone, tendons, and ligaments. In athletics, the epidemiology of injuries occurring before or during an international elite competition has been extensively described Edouard et al.


I Tried Zone 2 Training for 3 Months. This Happened

Author: Mazukazahn

2 thoughts on “Nutrition for recovery and injury prevention in endurance sports

  1. Ich kann Ihnen empfehlen, die Webseite, mit der riesigen Zahl der Artikel nach dem Sie interessierenden Thema zu besuchen.

  2. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach sind Sie nicht recht. Geben Sie wir werden es besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by