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Reduces bacterial load

Reduces bacterial load

Bactetial of a vaccine against Lod aureus invasive infections: evidence based DEXA scan for fracture risk assessment human immunity, genetics and bacterial evasion mechanisms. Managing cravings and emotional eating and characterization Reduces bacterial load Staphylococcus aureus in growing pigs in the USA. Jeffrey FernandezJeffrey Fernandez. A high bacterial load in a semi-finished product has repercussions both in terms of a reduction in the quality and palatability of the product, and in the shortening of shelf-life, due to the generation of off flavours, the signs of oxidation, and bacterial or fungal proliferation.

Reduces bacterial load -

Smooth control surface log cell densities were compared where appropriate to determine experimental variance for establishing optimum assay conditions. The immersion assay with RODAC recovery was used to quantify bacterial attachment to representative acrylic The MP and smooth surfaces after being inoculated with a bacterial suspension.

Microbial attachment. MSSA and MRSA were incubated in suspension on smooth black bars or micro-patterned grey bars acrylic film for 1 h. After rinsing 3 times and drying for 1 h the remaining viable bacteria on the surfaces were quantified.

The plot represents average log densities and standard error of the mean. Significance was determined using a single t-Test of the log reduction data points. The average log reduction values were then used to calculate the median percent reduction values indicated above each column. aureus MSSA was tested for persistence on the MP with RODAC recovery after a uniform spray inoculation technique, mimicking a common surface contamination event.

The MP reduction of MSSA contamination was also visually apparent using RODAC recovery Figure 3 B. Sprayed surfaces were also sampled using disruption and dilution plating quantification.

MSSA was significantly reduced on the MP compared to smooth surface Additional file 1 : Table S1 with this recovery method. Microscopy methods were utilized to ensure that the RODAC agar efficiently removed bacteria from the MP and smooth surfaces.

Scanning electron microscopy SEM surface examination indicated that before RODAC recovery, the smooth silicone surface had extensive contamination compared to the MP surface Additional file 2 : Figure S1A and B.

After RODAC recovery, both surfaces were without visible contamination Additional file 2 : Figure S1C and D. These results are consistent with quantitative results from the immersion assay Figure 2. Microbial persistence. Smooth and micro-patterned MP acrylic films were challenged with a sprayed inoculum and dried for 30 m.

Log densities of bacteria present on the surfaces of the MP compared to smooth controls for MSSA are plotted with the associated standard error of the mean. A representative image of a RODAC contact plate after MSSA sampling, the MP surface right has fewer bacteria compared to the smooth surface left.

Both MSSA and MRSA on a surfaces were evaluated using the combination transfer and persistence assay with RODAC recovery methods. Comparison of Sharklet MP to Copper antimicrobial surface. MSSA and MRSA were used to challenge smooth unpatterned film, the MP film, and copper foil Average log density values are presented for smooth, the MP, and copper surfaces.

Error bars represent the SEM for 3 independent experiments. The percent reduction values were calculated using individual log reduction values comparing either Sharklet MP or copper to smooth control samples.

Antimicrobial copper, which is marketed for its ability to reduce environmental contamination [ 23 , 44 ], was not effective at reducing MSSA contamination compared to smooth acrylic film after 0 m or 90 m. Importantly, the MP reductions in MSSA contamination grouped in statistically higher log reduction groups from that of antimicrobial copper using Tukey post-test ANOVA analysis.

These data demonstrated that the MP was more effective than antimicrobial copper surfaces in limiting bacterial contamination transfer and survival in the touch transfer assay. The MP consistently demonstrated a reduction in microbial attachment, transference, and survival following simulated real-world inoculation methods.

Additionally, the MP has potential to limit transference and persistence of bacteria, but the immersion method did not allow evaluation of those individual events. Therefore methods were further developed to simulate real-world inoculation events.

Spray inoculation allowed for uniform and reproducible loading of inoculum onto surfaces to evaluate bacterial persistence over time 30—90 m and touch transference assays were used to mimic indirect bacterial spread on high-touch surfaces through transfer alone therefore those assays required sampling after 0 m.

Bacterial loads were sampled from the MP or smooth surfaces using RODAC contact plates [ 5 , 45 , 46 ]. The RODAC plates were used to quantify remaining bacterial loads, which proved to be a reproducible method which is not commonly used in standardized test methods [ 36 , 47 , 48 ].

Validation of RODAC sampling efficacy was done qualitatively using SEM Additional file 2 : Figure S1 and quantitatively using previously-optimized ultra-sonication Additional file 1 : Table S1 [ 34 , 41 , 49 , 50 ]. These data substantiate the use of RODAC contact sampling to test the bacterial load present after inoculation and drying on both the MP and smooth surfaces.

Importantly, the MP demonstrated reduced bacterial contamination regardless of the inoculation and sampling method. This suggests that independent mechanisms are limiting bacterial transfer as well as bacterial survival after interaction with the MP surface.

This report is the first to demonstrate that use of a microtopography can result in accelerated loss of bacterial viability compared to a smooth surface Additional file 1 : Table S1. Loss of bacterial viability following reduced bacterial surface interaction is not surprising since microbial transition to a tolerant sessile physiology relies heavily on surface adherence [ 51 , 52 ].

The MP was engineered and optimized to achieve specific surface energies, which reduce bacterial interaction and attachment compared to a smooth surface [ 29 , 53 ]. Therefore, the inability for bacteria to efficiently adhere to the MP is potentially responsible for the loss of bacterial viability in addition to the limited initial transfer of bacteria to the MP.

Antimicrobial copper has been the most popularly implemented surface technology able to demonstrate a reduction in bacterial contamination in both laboratory and clinical environmental testing [ 23 , 44 ]. Therefore, in this study, antimicrobial copper was compared to the MP, and the MP outperformed antimicrobial copper in reduction of bacterial transfer and survival.

The finding that the MP was more effective at limiting bacterial load 90 m after inoculation is intriguing. While the MP surface limits initial transfer due to surface energy changes [ 53 , 54 ] as well as perceived persistence of organisms, the copper surfaces appear to only limit persistence based on cytotoxic effects occurring after longer durations.

The fact that the MP does not require cytotoxic compounds or leaching chemicals to be an effective alternative to traditional antimicrobials such as copper for limiting bacterial contamination is a distinct advantage. The impact of these results is highly relevant given the evidence linking surface contamination to nosocomial infections [ 5 , 11 , 55 , 56 ].

Survival of S. aureus including MRSA on dry inanimate surfaces can range from 7 days to 7 months [ 8 ]. The existing and emerging surface decontamination and cleaning methodologies were clearly evaluated in a recent review by Weber and Rutala [ 22 ].

They discussed advantages and disadvantages of many hygiene practices and contamination resistant surfaces including the MP. Unfortunately, they found that while education and improved hygiene practices would theoretically contribute to fewer HAIs, little positive effects have been observed.

Therefore, a technology that limits contamination regardless of human error is warranted. Additionally, chemical antimicrobial applications can also be problematic to vulnerable patient populations including neonates and young children and are often avoided.

Wide implementation of antimicrobial surface technologies with direct kill mechanisms are concerning due to their potential to provide selective pressure for resistant micro-organisms.

Heavy metal resistance has already been identified with clinically-relevant bacterial species showing resistance to silver [ 24 , 57 , 58 ] and copper [ 59 ].

The MSSA strain tested in this study exhibited tolerance to copper surfaces for 90 m but not to the MP. Considering that antimicrobial copper surfaces have been shown to reduce HAI rates combined with MRSA or VRE colonization when implemented in ICU rooms [ 23 ] and the MP outperformed copper when testing transfer and survival of MSSA and MRSA in vitro , this study suggests that the MP may help reduce infection rates and improve patient care.

Continued testing of the MP surfaces in clinical settings should provide further evidence of the nature and magnitude of the benefits to patients. The MP surface is an effective and attractive method to broadly reduce microbial contamination on surfaces without the use of antimicrobial agents.

The studies presented here clearly demonstrate that the MP reduces microbial transfer and when compared to the same material without the MP present. When adopted into real-world use, application of the MP onto high-touch surfaces in hospitals or shared public spaces is expected to limit environmental contamination of infectious microorganisms.

Given that preliminary clinical evidence exists that antimicrobial copper implementation in hospital rooms decreases HAI rate, similar implementation of the MP, which outperformed copper in the transfer and persistence in vitro study, has potential to reduce the incidence of HAIs.

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Santo CE, Morais PV, Grass G: Isolation and characterization of bacteria resistant to metallic copper surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol. Download references. The authors would like to recognize the support of Melinda Sogo, Trevor Hostetter, Michael Drinker, Bristi Basu, and Caroline Flores for their support in completing experiment tasks and laboratory support.

Additionally, test material development and innovation support provided by Mark Spiecker, MiKayla Henry, Kelley Doebler, and Bryce Stevenson. Test material also provided by Ryan Stoneberg and Gurpreet Chhiber at 10× Microstructures and Bill Sullivan and Dave Constantine at FLEXcon.

Sharklet Technologies, Inc, E. Montview Blvd, Suite , Aurora, CO, , USA. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Shravanthi T Reddy. All authors, except ABB, completed work while being employed by Sharklet Technologies, Inc.

ABB is a paid consultant of Sharklet Technologies, Inc. All authors had significant contributions to the science discussed. EEM, DM, RM Mettetal, RM May, EMD, KKC, ABB, and STR all contributed to the design and objectives of experimental analysis.

EEM, DM, MR Mettetal, and RM May combined to carry out testing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Additional file 1: Table S1: Quantification of bacterial persistence using dilution plating.

MSSA was aerosolized onto smooth or the MP acrylic film and allowed to dry for 90 m. Smooth and MP associated log densities with resulting log reductions are presented along with the p value using a single paired t-Test. DOCX 30 KB. Additional file 2: Figure S1: MSSA contamination persistence recovery.

Samples immersed in a suspension of MSSA were rinse 3 times, sampled, and then prepared for SEM imaging. Smooth surface before RODAC A and Sharklet MP before RODAC sampling B are pictured adjacent to images after RODAC sampling C and D.

TIFF 7 MB. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Mann, E. et al. With this model, we characterized the efficacy of a LukAB toxoid as vaccine candidate.

Compared to control animals, a 3-log reduction of bacteria at the deep-seated surgical site was observed in LukAB-treated minipigs and dissemination of bacteria was dramatically reduced. Therefore, LukAB toxoids may be a useful addition to S. aureus vaccines and warrant further study.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; leukotoxin AB; minipig; surgical wound infection; vaccine. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Lowering the bacterial load in an incubator is important for maintaining bactefial sterile environment, especially Refuces settings such as vaccine Caloric needs for specific diets, laboratories, medical facilities, or Managing cravings and emotional eating commercial hatcheries. Here Redices some Managing cravings and emotional eating you can take to reduce the bacterial Reduves Managing cravings and emotional eating an incubator:. Remember that maintaining a low bacterial load is an ongoing process that requires consistent attention and adherence to protocols. The specific steps you need to take might vary depending on the type of incubator you're using and the environment in which it's located. Always refer to the manufacturer's guidelines and consult with experts in your field for the best practices. Get in touch with EMKA Incubators to find out why our incubators are best equipped for disinfection. Home Knowledge Base Reducing the bacterial load in an incubator. Reduces bacterial load


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