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Metabolic rate and inflammation levels

Metabolic rate and inflammation levels

Mediators Inflamm inflammarion Our genes are the blueprints for the proteins in our body, and our proteins are responsible for the digestion and metabolism of our food. Cell Death Dis ; 6 : e

Metabolic rate and inflammation levels -

Age impacts both baseline CRP and the magnitude of CRP elevation in response to an immune system activation [ 29 — 31 ]. Lane-Cordova and colleagues reported that even compared to elderly adults with low baseline CRP concentrations, young adults experienced a greater elevation in CRP from baseline after receiving an influenza vaccine [ 30 ].

Another possible explanation is that some participants could have become infected with a pathogen during their participation in our study.

This would result in our measured CRP responses to vaccination being artificially high because infection with an actual pathogen would induce a larger magnitude CRP response [ 17 , 32 ].

We found no evidence that influenza vaccination impacted RMR; there were no trends nor statistically significant differences in RMR across the three measurements. As such, it appears that influenza vaccination was too weak of an inflammatory stimulant to trigger an increase in RMR in our sample. Previous research has found that large or chronic stimulations of the immune system are so energetically costly that they are not fully compensated for by downregulating energetic investment in other body systems [ 1 , 5 — 9 , 18 , 28 ].

The present study aimed to fill a gap in the existing literature by investigating how a mild immune system stimulus impacts metabolism. Our results suggest that the energetic cost of influenza vaccination may be compensated for by the body reallocating energetic resources from one or several body systems to the immune system.

Therefore, brief, and minor, energetic divestment from other metabolic activities would presumably not have lasting consequences and upregulation of the basal metabolic rate would not occur. In mice, a mild immune stimulus was not associated with changes in metabolic rate, but it was associated with reductions in energy allocated to digestive and reproductive systems [ 10 ].

We did not evaluate reproductive or digestive function in our participants, but future studies should investigate whether changes in those systems are associated with mild immune stimuli.

One possible explanation for why influenza vaccination was too mild of an immune stimulus to result in a change in RMR is that all participants had received influenza vaccinations in the past.

Participants already had memory B-cells with the blueprint to synthesize antibodies against some of the proteins in the vaccine. As a result, the adaptive immune system would have been able to respond more quickly, while the innate immune system would not require robust activation [ 2 , 34 ].

Also, previous research has found that RMR and CRP concentrations are correlated at baseline [ 35 ], but, given that influenza vaccination is a mild immune stimulus, changes in CRP may have been too small to result in measurable increases in RMR. Individuals with CRP levels between 3. This result suggests that CRP concentrations would have to be extremely high, like they are in severe inflammatory states, before accompanying increases in RMR could be observed.

Stratification of density distribution plots of percent change in baseline RMR after influenza vaccination by CRP concentration. RMR was measured at baseline before vaccination and at days two and seven after vaccination; the day two:baseline and day seven:baseline ratios were combined for analysis.

If influenza vaccination impacts RMR but RMR peaks at a different time than CRP, the RMR response would not have been captured within our study design. We based the timing of our RMR measurements on when we expected CRP to peak two days after influenza vaccination using existing literature, but it is possible that changes in RMR would occur at a different time than changes in CRP.

The only two studies that have investigated the effect of vaccination on RMR found that RMR increased much earlier in response to typhoid fever vaccination i. These studies stopped evaluating RMR after six to eight hours, so it is unknown whether this timeframe following injection represents the peak RMR response.

Influenza vaccination may cause a similar increase in RMR several hours following injection, but we would not have observed the change with the current study design.

Our results corroborate previous findings that influenza vaccination is a valid model for investigating inflammatory responses to mild immune system stimuli in vivo.

We expand the existing literature on CRP reactivity with our finding that healthy young adults appear to experience larger acute increases in CRP in response to mild immune system stimulation than older adults, as reported in previous studies.

We also add to the existing research on the energetic cost of immune system activation. In contrast to sepsis and chronic activations of the immune system, we find no evidence that mild acute immune system activation induces a corresponding increase in adult RMR. Rather, our results suggest that energetic costs associated with mild acute inflammatory responses are either too small to be measured by indirect calorimetry or are largely compensated for by temporary reallocations of energy from other body systems.

Future studies evaluating the energetic costs of mild immune system activation studies should consider using whole-room calorimetry to monitor any changes in metabolic rate as well as alterations in dietary intake, activity level, and sleep duration [ 37 ].

Further, future studies should evaluate the immune response in vaccine naïve patients i. Other vaccinations beyond influenza e. tetanus, tick encephalitis, COVID, etc. may elicit different or stronger immune responses and should also be considered when designing future studies.

Examining vaccine response in other populations, particularly those with greater background pathogen burden, would also advance our understanding of immune activity costs.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Peer Review Reader Comments Figures. Results Baseline CRP was 1. Conclusions We find no evidence that adult influenza vaccination results in a corresponding increase in RMR.

Loor, University of Illinois, UNITED STATES Received: May 2, ; Accepted: November 22, ; Published: December 15, Copyright: © Parker et al. Introduction Both maintaining a functioning immune system and mounting an immune response are metabolically expensive.

Methods The study was approved by the Duke University Health System Institutional Review Board. Results Demographic and anthropometric data are reported in Table 1 , and all vitals are reported in Table 2. Download: PPT. Table 1. Fig 1. Density plot of CRP at baseline, two days, and seven days after influenza vaccination.

Table 3. RMR and CRP at baseline, two days, and seven days after influenza vaccination. Fig 2. Density plot of RMR at baseline, two days, and seven days after influenza vaccination.

Discussion While the impacts of chronic immune activation and severe inflammatory states on metabolism are well documented [ 1 , 5 — 9 , 18 , 28 ], our understanding of the effect that a mild immune stimulus has on metabolic rate is limited.

CRP increases in response to influenza vaccination Our sample of healthy young adults had a median baseline CRP of 1. RMR does not increase in response to vaccination We found no evidence that influenza vaccination impacted RMR; there were no trends nor statistically significant differences in RMR across the three measurements.

Fig 3. Density plot of percent change in baseline RMR after influenza vaccination stratified by CRP concentration. Conclusions and future directions Our results corroborate previous findings that influenza vaccination is a valid model for investigating inflammatory responses to mild immune system stimuli in vivo.

Supporting information. S1 Dataset. Study raw data. s XLSX. Acknowledgments We thank J. Dunn, Ph. and C. Nunn, Ph. for their feedback on this project. References 1. Gurven MD, Trumble BC, Stieglitz J, Yetish G, Cummings D, Blackwell AD, et al. High resting metabolic rate among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists experiencing high pathogen burden.

Am J Phys Anthropol. McDade TW. Life history theory and the immune system: steps toward a human ecological immunology. View Article Google Scholar 3.

Demas GE. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Horm Behav. Pontzer H.

Energy constraint as a novel mechanism linking exercise and health. Kreymann G, Grosser S, Buggisch P, Gottschall C, Mattaei S, Greten H. Oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in sepsis, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock.

Crit Care Med. Carlson GL, Gray P, Arnold J, Little RA, Irving MH. Thermogenic, hormonal and metabolic effects of intravenous glucose infusion in human sepsis. Br J Surg. Urlacher SS, Ellison PT, Sugiyama LS, Pontzer H, Eick G, Liebert MA et al.

Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Urlacher SS, Snodgrass JJ, Dugas LR, Madimenos FC, Sugiyama LS, Liebert MA, et al. Childhood Daily Energy Expenditure Does Not Decrease with Market Integration and Is Not Related to Adiposity in Amazonia.

J Nutr. Urlacher SS, Snodgrass JJ, Dugas LR, Sugiyama LS, Liebert MA, Joyce CJ, et al. Constraint and trade-offs regulate energy expenditure during childhood. Sci Adv. Derting TL, Compton S. Immune response, not immune maintenance, is energetically costly in wild white-footed mice Peromyscus leucopus.

Physiol and Biochem Zool. View Article Google Scholar Muehlenbein MP, Hirschtick JL, Bonner JZ, et al. Toward quantifying the usage costs of human immunity: Altered metabolic rates and hormone levels during acute immune activation in men. Am J Hum Biol. Barr DP, Cecil RL, Du Bois EF.

Clinical calorimetry XXXII: Temperature regulation after the intravenous injection of proteose and typhoid vaccine. Arch Intern Med. Cooper AL, Horan MA, Little RA, et al. Metabolic and febrile responses to typhoid vaccine in humans: effect of beta-adrenergic blockade. J Appl Physiol. McDade TW, Borja JB, Kuzawa CW, et al.

C-reactive protein response to influenza vaccination as a model of mild inflammatory stimulation in the Philippines. Sørensen C. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study DBDS.

PloS One. Pathak A, Agrawal A. Evolution of C-Reactive Protein. Front Immunol. Khalil RH, Al-Humadi N. Types of acute phase reactants and their importance in vaccination. Biomed Rep. Shattuck-Heidorn H, Reiches MW, Prentice AM, et al.

Energetics and the immune system: Trade-offs associated with non-acute levels of CRP in adolescent Gambian girls. Evol Med Public Health. Carty CL, Heagerty P, Nakayama K. Inflammatory response after influenza vaccination in men with and without carotid artery disease.

Posthouwer D, Voorbij HA, Grobbee DE, et al. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination as a model to assess C-reactive protein response to mild inflammation. Tsai MY, Hanson NQ, Straka RJ, Hoke TR, Ordovas JM, Peacock JM, et al. Effect of influenza vaccine on markers of inflammation and lipid profile.

J Lab Clin Med. Liuba P, Aburawi EH, Pesonen E, Andersson S, Truedson L, Ylä-Herttuala S, et al. Australia has physical activity guidelines External Link that recommend the amount and intensity of activity by age and life stage.

Muscle tissue has a large appetite for kilojoules. The more muscle mass you have, the more kilojoules you will burn. People tend to put on fat as they age, partly because the body slowly loses muscle. It is not clear whether muscle loss is a result of the ageing process or because many people are less active as they age.

However, it probably has more to do with becoming less active. Research has shown that strength and resistance training can reduce or prevent this muscle loss. If you are over 40 years of age, have a pre-existing medical condition or have not exercised in some time, see your doctor before starting a new fitness program.

Hormones help regulate our metabolism. Some of the more common hormonal disorders affect the thyroid. This gland secretes hormones to regulate many metabolic processes, including energy expenditure the rate at which kilojoules are burned.

Thyroid disorders include:. Our genes are the blueprints for the proteins in our body, and our proteins are responsible for the digestion and metabolism of our food. Sometimes, a faulty gene means we produce a protein that is ineffective in dealing with our food, resulting in a metabolic disorder.

In most cases, genetic metabolic disorders can be managed under medical supervision, with close attention to diet. The symptoms of genetic metabolic disorders can be very similar to those of other disorders and diseases, making it difficult to pinpoint the exact cause.

See your doctor if you suspect you have a metabolic disorder. Some genetic disorders of metabolism include:.

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Skip to main content. Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this page. What is metabolism? Two processes of metabolism Metabolic rate Metabolism and age-related weight gain Hormonal disorders of metabolism Genetic disorders of metabolism Where to get help.

Two processes of metabolism Our metabolism is complex — put simply it has 2 parts, which are carefully regulated by the body to make sure they remain in balance. They are: Catabolism — the breakdown of food components such as carbohydrates , proteins and dietary fats into their simpler forms, which can then be used to provide energy and the basic building blocks needed for growth and repair.

Anabolism — the part of metabolism in which our body is built or repaired. Anabolism requires energy that ultimately comes from our food.

When we eat more than we need for daily anabolism, the excess nutrients are typically stored in our body as fat. Thermic effect of food also known as thermogenesis — your body uses energy to digest the foods and drinks you consume and also absorbs, transports and stores their nutrients.

Energy used during physical activity — this is the energy used by physical movement and it varies the most depending on how much energy you use each day.

Physical activity includes planned exercise like going for a run or playing sport but also includes all incidental activity such as hanging out the washing, playing with the dog or even fidgeting!

Basal metabolic rate BMR The BMR refers to the amount of energy your body needs to maintain homeostasis. Factors that affect our BMR Your BMR is influenced by multiple factors working in combination, including: Body size — larger adult bodies have more metabolising tissue and a larger BMR.

Amount of lean muscle tissue — muscle burns kilojoules rapidly. Crash dieting, starving or fasting — eating too few kilojoules encourages the body to slow the metabolism to conserve energy.

Age — metabolism slows with age due to loss of muscle tissue, but also due to hormonal and neurological changes. Growth — infants and children have higher energy demands per unit of body weight due to the energy demands of growth and the extra energy needed to maintain their body temperature.

Gender — generally, men have faster metabolisms because they tend to be larger. Genetic predisposition — your metabolic rate may be partly decided by your genes.

Hormonal and nervous controls — BMR is controlled by the nervous and hormonal systems. Hormonal imbalances can influence how quickly or slowly the body burns kilojoules.

Environmental temperature — if temperature is very low or very high, the body has to work harder to maintain its normal body temperature, which increases the BMR.

Infection or illness — BMR increases because the body has to work harder to build new tissues and to create an immune response. Amount of physical activity — hard-working muscles need plenty of energy to burn. Regular exercise increases muscle mass and teaches the body to burn kilojoules at a faster rate, even when at rest.

Drugs — like caffeine or nicotine , can increase the BMR. Dietary deficiencies — for example, a diet low in iodine reduces thyroid function and slows the metabolism.

Thermic effect of food Your BMR rises after you eat because you use energy to eat, digest and metabolise the food you have just eaten. Hot spicy foods for example, foods containing chilli, horseradish and mustard can have a significant thermic effect.

Energy used during physical activity During strenuous or vigorous physical activity, our muscles may burn through as much as 3, kJ per hour.

For Renewable Energy Alternatives Metabolic rate and inflammation levels Mteabolic PLOS Subject Areas, click invlammation. This study investigates the within-individual association between inclammation inflammatory response to influenza vaccination and RMR in young adults. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests were used to evaluate the magnitude of the CRP and RMR responses. Type II Wald chi-square tests of linear mixed-effect models assessed whether those responses were correlated. Baseline CRP was 1.


Doctor explains C-reactive protein (CRP) blood test! Suppose you've considered Hydration practices for physical activity llevels a metabolism test Mtabolic weight anf or inflammatikn exercise performance. In that Levele, it's essential to understand how that test works and how the data rste used to lose Banishing dark circles or improve your fitness level. Metabolic testing is widely available at medical clinics, universities, and local health spas — but it can cost more than you'd think. If you're going to get one of these tests done, make sure it will be worth it. Metabolic tests measure the rate at which your body burns calories and uses oxygen during rest or different activities, the REE state. People have difficulty understanding their metabolism, so providing specific numbers can help balance the confusion and provide meaning. Metabolic rate and inflammation levels

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