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Functional training adaptations

Functional training adaptations

Most studies reported randomization, adaptatuons comparisons Functional training adaptations point estimates plus Recovery nutrition for skaters indicators, had comparable baseline values and used intention-to-treat. Performance in Ttaining was no different at pre and post. This cross-education effect occurs in individuals with stroke after ECC or ECC-overload, but not CON RE [ 1233 ], underlining the potential role of ECC muscle actions in facilitating central nervous system adaptations. Kuhn S. Functional training adaptations

Functional training adaptations -

Additionally, either a sedentary control group CT or a regular endurance training group ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 PFK , succinate dehydrogenase SDHa , and glucose transporter type 4 GLUT4 were determined.

In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction.

In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO 2max , a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet.

An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training.

This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training. Citation: Krüger K, Gessner DK, Seimetz M, Banisch J, Ringseis R, Eder K, et al. PLoS ONE 8 11 : e Editor: Guillermo López Lluch, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo-CSIC, Spain.

Received: May 13, ; Accepted: September 27, ; Published: November 13, Copyright: © Krüger et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Human body is a highly dynamic and plastic system with respect to adaptation responses to exercise. Thereby pure endurance and strength training stimuli represent two important extremes which are implemented into many training regimes both in high performance and recreational sports [1] , [2].

The endurance phenotype is characterized by a high resistance against fatigue and a quick recovery after exercise. Furthermore, muscles are enriched with slow twitch fibers type I fibers , and are abundantly furnished with oxidative enzymes and mitochondria allowing prolonged bouts of endurance activities [3] , [4].

In contrast, resistance training athletes are hypermuscular yet lean. They exhibit an increased maximal strength and are able to perform short term high intensity exercise programs. Their muscles are enriched with fast glycolytic fibers that express myosin heavy chain MHC proteins type IIa and IIx.

These fibers express primarily glycolytic enzymes to enhance glucose utilization and ATP generation. However, these muscles have only a limited resistance against fatigue [3] , [5].

Beyond athletes performance exercise training has become an important life style factor known to be effective in prevention and therapy of many wealth-related diseases, such as many metabolic and cardiovascular diseases [6] , [7]. While recreational training recommendations focused for a long time on endurance exercise only recently other motoric properties such as strength have been evaluated in more detail.

Accordingly, there are two different approaches to address metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle: endurance exercise training promotes an increased glucose and fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis and resistance exercise training to increase muscle mass, basic metabolic rate and activity of glycolytic fibers [9] , [10].

For a systematic study of the exercise effects on a molecular level, animal models have been used successfully. Klitgaard and Nicastro et al. However, these experimental approaches showed either some limitations in extrapolations to human conditions or used complex training apparatus [12] , [13].

Likewise, recently published models used loaded wheel running which can be characterized more as a type of combined resistance-endurance training [14]. We hypothesized that this regular isometric strength training resulted in specific functional, structural, and biochemical adaptations known from resistance exercise training in humans and which would be clearly distinguishable to endurance training.

Knowing that resistance exercise in humans is also effective in therapy of diabetes we further hypothesized that this training method is reducing glucose intolerance in a mouse model of obesity. This study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

All animals were housed, cared for, and the protocol was approved by the Animal Welfare Officer of the Justus-Liebig-University and the Regierungspräsidium Giessen No. The initial body weights can be found in table 1. Mice were housed 4—6 per cage at 21±1°C in standard cages with free access to food and tap-water and were bred at the animal facility of the Department of Sports Medicine Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen.

High fat diet groups were switched for 10 weeks on a lard diet to induce obesity as previously described [15]. All animals were housed on a reverse light-dark cycle lighting from to h. Isometric strength training was performed by the following experimental set up. A 8×5 cm hole was cut in an aluminium AE plate and covered with a metal wire mesh.

The wire had a maximum diameter of 1 mm to provide mice a strong grip. The mice gripped with their front and their back paws on horizontal wires of the metal mesh and the plate was placed in a vertical position Fig.

Meanwhile the orientation of the mice was holding head up. The plain surface of the AE plate prevented a further movement away. Break between each series was 1 minute. Running speed was 0. Briefly, the mice gripped with their paws on wires of the metal mesh and the plate was placed in a vertical position.

Time was measured until mice released both back paws from the wire. Aerobic capacity was determined by using a treadmill spirometry as previously described [16] , [17].

Briefly, after a short acclimatization maximal oxygen consumption VO 2max and maximal running speed V max of mice were tested at least 4 days before starting the experiments. After 10 min of acclimatization in the treadmill chamber, mice performed a continuous, progressive exercise test until exhaustion.

The test uptake started at 0. Serial cross sections 20 µm thick of m. rectus femoris, m. soleus and m. Muscle cross sections were mounted on cover slips and stained for myosin ATPase mATPase with acid pre-incubation using a modified method according to Hämäläinen and Pette [18].

Briefly, sections were pre-incubated for 5 min in sodium acetate After washing, the sections were incubated for 30 min at 37°C in substrate solution 2. After washing with distilled water, the sections were analyzed by light microscopy Leica DMI B,Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar Germany for calculating the type I and type II fiber percentages and measurement of average muscle fiber diameters by using Leica Application Suite software and Leica QWin Leica Microsystems,Wetzlar Germany.

Preparation of tissue and gene expression analysis was performed as previously described [19]. Total messenger RNA was isolated from homogenized mouse muscles m. gastrocnemius, m.

soleus using RNeasy Mini Kits Qiagen, Hilden, Germany according to the manufacturer's instructions. The conditions for the reverse transcription were as follows: 1 cycle at 25°C for 5 min; 1 cycle at 42°C for 30 min; 1 cycle at 85°C for 5 min.

Relative quantification of glucose transporter type 4 GLUT4 , phosphofructokinase PFK and succinate dehydrogenase subunit A SDHa was performed by real-time PCR with the iQ SYBR Green Supermix according to the manufacturer's instructions BioRad, Munich, Germany.

Per reaction, a 25 µL mixture was used containing A negative control nontemplate control was performed in each run. The Real-time PCR experiments were performed with a MxP Stratagene, Heidelberg, Germany under the following conditions: 1 cycle at 95°C for 10 min, then 40 cycles at 95°C for 10 s, 59°C for 10 s, 72°C for 10 s, followed by a dissociation curve.

The intron-spanning primers were designed by using sequence information from the NCBI database. The Ct values were normalized to the endogenous control Porphobilinogendeaminase, PBGD.

Glucose tolerance was estimated as described previously Briefly, following a h fasting period, tail vein blood was taken before T0 , 30 min after T1 , 60 min after T2 , and 2 h after T3 intraperitoneal application of 2 g glucose dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline per kilogram body weight.

Blood glucose concentration was measured using a standard glucometer Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany. Frozen muscles were homogenized with a homogenizer Precellys 24, Peqlab, Erlangen, Germany.

The respective tissues were put in 2 ml tubes containing ceramic beads and homogenization buffer containing protease inhibitors from ab, Abcam and homogenized rpm, 2×30 s, each followed by additional homogenization using syringes with 20 G needles.

Such homogenized tissues were incubated 30 min on ice. The homogenate was centrifuged at ×g for 10 min at 4°C to remove unbroken cells and nuclei. The supernatant was centrifuged at 10,×g at 4°C to pellet the total cellular membrane fraction which, according to the protocol, contained proteins from both plasma membrane and cellular organelle membrane.

The resulting pellets were suspended in 75 µl PBS containing 1 mM sodium vanadate, 0. The supernatant represented the cytosol fraction CF. Equal loading of proteins was demonstrated byPonceau S Carl Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany staining, routinely used as loading control [20] , [21].

The membrane was washed for 5 min with wash buffer 20 mMTris-Cl, pH 7. Incubation with a diluted primary antibody against GLUT4 polyclonal rabbit anti-GLUT4 antibody; Abcam, Cambridge, UK and Transferrin membrane-specific protein monoclonal mouse anti-Transferrin antibody, Invitrogen, Karlsruhe, Germany was performed overnight at 4°C.

After washing the membrane, visualization was carried out using the enhanced chemiluminescence kit ECL, Amersham, Braunschweig, Germany and X-ray photo film Kodak, Stuttgart, Germany. Ponceau S staining of the membranes was converted to a gray scale.

Data are means ± SEM, unless indicated otherwise in the figure legends. Differences between the points of time and groups were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test.

Body weight changes were similar for both exercise and control group. Body weight increased significantly between pre and 5 weeks of exercise training, while no further increase was observed between 5 weeks and 10 weeks of training Table 1. Here, no significant changes were observed neither in the CT nor the ET group.

In contrast, no changes of V max were observed in the ST group, while we found an increase in the ET group between pre and 10 weeks of training Fig.

There was a different fiber type distribution between m. soleus, and m. The ratio was found to be highest in m. gastrocnemius, while the proportion of type I fibers continuously increased from m. rectus femoris to m.

Figure 2B shows representative pictures from fiber typing in different groups. We found no fiber type changes in muscles from the ST group. In addition to muscular fiber type composition the fiber cross section was measured.

gastrocnemius, exercise training interventions were followed by differential changes in fiber thickness depending on fiber type.

Strength training increased the diameter of type II fibers in m. rectus femoris as well as m. gastrocnemius significantly against both other groups, while no changes occurred in m. Interestingly, a slight increase of type II fiber thickness in m. rectus femoris and m. soleus was also found after endurance training.

Changes in muscle phenotype were accompanied by changes of muscle enzyme expression. We found a significant increased mRNA content of PFK in m. rectus femoris of mice from the ST group, while no changes were observed in ET group. No changes of PFK expression were found in soleus muscle.

In the m. Next the expression of the substrate transporter GLUT4 was investigated. Strength training enhanced GLUT mRNA in m. Expression of GLUT4 proteins in total membrane and cytosolic fraction of m. rectus femoris in mice of the CT, ET and ST group. Gels were spliced to present the results from the strength training ST in the consecutive sequence according to figures.

Ponceau S staining demonstrates equal loading of proteins. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. In order to evaluate the effect of the two training modes on glucose handling, a murine diabetes model was used. Mice which were chronically fed a high-fat diet showed a dysregulation of blood glucose levels after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test.

Exercising mice parallel to application of the high-fat diet resulted in significant lower glucose levels than for the sedentary animals indicating an improved glucose tolerance.

Again, GLUT4 mRNA was enhanced in m. soleus only in the ST group, while endurance training induced a slight decrease of GLUT mRNA at least in m.

In contrast, both training regimes did not show significantly enhanced GLUT4 expression on a protein level in the high fat diet, neither in the respective cytosolic, nor in the membrane fractions. rectus femoris in mice of the hfCT, hfET and hfST group.

Gels were spliced to present the results from the hf strength training hfST in the consecutive sequence according to figures. Data are presented as means ± SEM. In the current study the effects of a novel isometric strength training model on functional parameters and skeletal muscle adaptations in mice were examined.

The main findings were that mice demonstrated specific adaptations including a prolonged holding time in MHT testing, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 translocation in muscle membranes. The specificity of these adaptation responses to strength exercise was supported by comparison with the alterations induced after endurance training.

The therapeutic effects known from strength training in diabetic humans could also be mimicked by demonstrating that strength training was effective in improving glucose handling in a murine high fat diet model.

At first, the advantages of the strength training method should be discussed. The strength training device is characterized by both simple construction and easy manageable which accounts for typical rodent behavior such as gripping and climbing during their habitual movements in standard cages.

Therefore, training did not seem to be stressful and did not need fasting, shocking or conditioning compared to other models of strength training. The model applies predominantly static and isometric forces which contrasts to most of the other approaches reported in the literature so far.

In addition, it was possible to effectively control the variables holding time, repetitions and rest interval. For future studies, the model can be extended by fixing additional weights to their tails in order to increase strength training intensity. Regarding exercise performance parameters, it could be clearly demonstrated that the specific training protocols resulted in different changes of motor performance.

Whilemice of the ST group increased their holding time approximately 6-fold, no changes were observed in CT or in ET groups. In contrast, mice of the ST group demonstrated no increase of endurance capacity as indicated by measurement of VO 2max as well as V max.

These results clearly show that the isometric strength training induced specific motoric adaptations without any functional interference with endurance performance.

Such an absence of functional overlapping with endurance capacity was one of the requirements in the development of the strength training model since isometric strength training in humans is known to affect parameters of aerobic capacity only marginally [22] , [23] , [24] , [25].

However, in humans, maximum strength is often measured by determination of the one repetition maximum or dynamic strength testing which are both depending on the highest weight which can be moved [26] , [27].

Obviously, these types of testing were not applicable with mice. Instead, we used the holding time for quantification of strength capacity. Using this parameter was obviously a limitation in the current study since maximum strength is defined as the greatest amount of force that can be produced in a single exertion [26].

Other studies used weight suspension in vertical climbing rats or weight cylinders [12] which depend on complex instruments making their application to mice difficult. However, intention of the current strength training model was mainly to develop a model which was easy to handle and on the same time able to induce adequate adaptations.

In this framework, ATPase activity method is often used as a fundamental method in order to distinguish between oxidative type I and glycolytic type II muscle fibers. Three phenotypically different muscles, which were supposed to be involved in both treadmill locomotion as well as isometric holding, were analyzed: m.

rectus femoris, representing a mixed muscle of both oxidative and non-oxidative fibers, m. soleus which has a more oxidative phenotype, and m. gastrocnemius which has a more glycolytic phenotype.

After isometric strength training no muscle fiber type shift was observed which corresponded to most human studies [28]. In contrast, endurance training typically results in an overall shift away from type IIb expressing fibers to a more oxidative phenotype expressing type IIa or type I muscle fibers in human and rodents, which is in line with our results [22] , [29] , [30].

However, differences between type IIa and type IIb were not determined. Composition of muscles with fibers of a more glycolytic phenotype is usually associated with a more anaerobic capacity, while oxidative capacity increases with a higher number of oxidative fibers [30]. Although strength training failed to affect fiber type composition, it was able to affect fiber size.

In particular, ST training was followed by a significant increase of diameter of type II fibers in m. gastrocnemius, while it didn't affect type I fibers.

These results are supported by data from human subjects which showed a skeletal type II fibers muscle hypertrophy after strength training [2]. However, the effect was not observed in m. soleus suggesting that this muscle is not active during strength training.

Interestingly, also endurance training seemed to affect muscle fiber size of both fiber types in the murine model. It can be assumed that sedentary mice in common standard cages are generally suppressed in their activity. Therefore, even endurance exercise induces a type II hypertrophy. However, hypertrophy of type II fibers was most pronounced after strength training.

Metabolic shifts of muscles to a more glycolytic or more oxidative phenotype often coincides with differential expression of enzymes.

Although, strength and conditioning professionals are constantly working to improve a specific neuromuscular function. Therefore, the term FT becomes redundant and confusing Ide et al.

Fleck and Kraemer Fleck and Kraemer, proposed that the general definition of FT is the training that is meant to increase performance in some functional tasks, such as activities of daily living or tests related to athletic performance Fleck and Kraemer, Thus, FT could refer to virtually any training meant to increase motor performance Fleck and Kraemer, Considering that in exercise physiology, muscle strength, power, flexibility, and endurance are often regarded as functional aspects of the neuromuscular system, this general definition presented by Fleck and Kraemer Fleck and Kraemer, appears to be the most rational.

Exercise adaptations are highly dependent on the specific training stimulus Nader, ; Egan and Zierath, ; Hughes et al.

Therefore, an apt description of physical training programs is essential for planning neuromuscular, cardiovascular, metabolic, and functional exercise performance and recovery enhancements. The current study data show that FT has no consistent and universal definition.

FT programs and exercises are not different from those already used in sports training, and the claimed neuromuscular adaptations are also the same. Insisting to use this term i. The rational statement is that FT is redundant and should have no place in scientific literature.

On the other hand, we agree that, as everyday jargon in practice, the term FT may help coach cues and informal communication between athletes and coaches.

Based on the current results, we recommend that the terms FT, HIFT, and FF no longer describe any physical training program. These can be easily classified as strength, power, endurance, flexibility, and described according to the specific exercises employed e.

Sports activities may be broadly classified into events that require great expressions of strength and power e. In addition, many activities like middle-distance sprint running and team and combat sports, which are characterized by intermittent efforts, require combinations of high levels of strength and power, combined with a well-developed aerobic capacity for peak performance Nader, Table 10 summarizes the skeletal muscle functional proprieties definition and exercises used for their development.

Table Skeletal muscle adaptations and exercises employed in strength, power, endurance aerobic or cardiorespiratory , and flexibility training programs. In addition to physical training, literature presents several adaptations and health benefits to endurance, strength and power training that may also be used in the proper classification of training stimulus Egan and Zierath, Our intention with this article was not to disqualify the studies, physical training programs, and the practice of the physical activities but to provide the correct definitions of terms and concepts to allow proper communication between students, coaches, athletes, and sports scientists.

BI conceived the idea, performed the initial data collection, wrote the first draft, worked on all drafts, and formatted the manuscript for submission.

AS, MM, CS, BS, DO, and GM helped to develop the main idea and draft the paper. All authors read and approved the last version of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Functional training adaptations fitness adsptations FFT is an acaptations Recovery nutrition for skaters hraining that emphasizes functional, Funtional movements, Recovery nutrition for skaters aerobic e. Researchers have shown that FFT may be not adapattions suitable for Gestational diabetes test results athletes but also for populations with different fitness levels. Indeed, it is suggested that FFT elicits greater muscle recruitment than aerobic exercises alone, thereby improving both endurance and muscular strength and power Bergeron et al. However, FFT units i. Therefore, the aim of this Research Topic is to increase the knowledge of the evidence-based effects and adaptations of implementing FFT on health and performance in individuals with different biological conditions. Strength training develops Essential oils for yoga neuron pathways that enhance an athlete's brain-body coordination trainung functional movements. Adaptationd an Functional training adaptations with Recovery nutrition for skaters teaches an athlete's brain to fire the correct muscles to achieve qdaptations desired motion. Recovery nutrition for skaters neurons are nerve cells that originate in the central nervous system and end at the muscle fibers in the neuromuscular junction. Signals sent from the brain run along the motor neuron to the muscle fiber to produce movements or muscular contractions. Some motor neurons are devoted to autonomic functions, such as signals sent to the diaphragm to contract which allows individuals to breathe. Alternatively, other motor neurons are dedicated to voluntary movements, like strength training.

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